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CD4 T cells play a central role in orchestrating the immune response to a variety of pathogens but also regulate autoimmune responses, asthma, allergic responses, as well as tumor immunity. To cover this broad spectrum of responses, naïve CD4 T cells differentiate into one of several lineages of T helper cells, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and T, as defined by their cytokine pattern and function. The fate decision of T helper cell differentiation integrates signals delivered through the T cell receptor, cytokine receptors, and the pattern of co-stimulatory signals received. In this review, we summarize the contribution of co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory receptors to the differentiation and maintenance of T helper cell responses.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Advances in experimental medicine and biology
T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated antigen-specific stimulation is essential for initiating T-cell activation. However, signaling through the TCR alone is not sufficient for inducing an effective response...
The persistence of T-helper 17 (Th17) cells has been shown to support chronic inflammation and mediate tissue destruction in periodontitis. However, little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms...
Following infection, inflammatory cues upregulate core transcriptional programs to establish pathogen-specific protection. In viral infections, T follicular helper (TFH) cells express the prototypical...
Type I IFNs play a well-known role in the pathogenesis of SLE, through activation of CD4 T and antigen-presenting cells. Here, we investigated the effects of IFN alpha (IFNα) on SLE B cell activation...
T help 2 (Th2) cell differentiation by morphine has been verified. However, the underlying mechanism of morphine induces Th2 cell differentiation remains elusive. The aim of the present study was to e...
RYGB (roux-en-y gastric bypass) has been reported to reverse type 2 diabetes (T2DM) immediately after surgery before any significant weight loss. In addition, a growing number of patients...
Since abnormal keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation as well as defective E cadherin expression were reported in vitiligo lesions, the investigators set to study the potential eff...
Patients with Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are known to present an increased risk of osteoporosis and cardiovascular calcification. It has also been suggested that bone remodelling a...
Metformin (MF), a biguanide group of anti-diabetic drug has been shown to enhance osteoblasts differentiation and inhibit osteoclast differentiation in vitro, thus may exhibit a favourable...
The radiologist plays a key role in the management of pancreatic tumours, which are potentially serious. While the scanner, with its high spatial resolution, plays a major role in pancrea...
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.
A growth differentiation factor that plays a regulatory role as a paracrine factor for a diverse array of cell types during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in the adult tissues. Growth differentiation factor 2 is also a potent regulator of CHONDROGENESIS and was previously referred to as bone morphogenetic protein 9.
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
A family of GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL-anchored, cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans that may play a role in CELL GROWTH PROCESSES and CELL DIFFERENTIATION by modulating ligand-receptor interactions.
Autoimmune disorders are conditions that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue. There are more than 80 different types of autoimmune disorders. Normally the immune system's white blood cells help protect ...