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Use of Family History and Genetic Testing to Determine Risk of Colorectal Cancer.

07:00 EST 21st November 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Use of Family History and Genetic Testing to Determine Risk of Colorectal Cancer."

Approximately 35% of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) have a family history of the disease, due to genetic factors, common exposures, or both. Some families with a history of CRC carry genetic variants that cause CRC with high or moderate penetrance, but these account for only 5%-10% of CRC cases. Most families with a history of CRC and/or adenomas do not carry genetic variants associated with cancer syndromes-this is called common familial CRC. Our understanding of familial predisposition to CRC and cancer syndromes has increased rapidly due to advances in next-generation sequencing technologies. As a result, there has been a shift from genetic testing for specific inherited cancer syndromes, based on clinical criteria alone, to simultaneous testing of multiple genes for cancer-associated variants. We summarize current knowledge of common familial CRC, provide an update on syndromes associated with CRC (including the nonpolyposis and polyposis types), and review current recommendations for CRC screening and surveillance. We also provide an approach to genetic evaluation and testing in clinical practice. Determination of CRC risk based on family cancer history and results of genetic testing can provide a personalized approach to cancer screening and prevention, with optimal use of colonoscopy to effectively decrease CRC incidence and mortality.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Gastroenterology
ISSN: 1528-0012
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