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Many bacteria form symbiotic associations with plant-associated fungi. The effects of these symbionts on host fitness usually depend on symbiont or host genotypes and environmental conditions. However, bacterial endosymbionts, that is those living within fungal cells, may positively regulate host performance as their survival is often heavily dependent on host fitness. Contrary to this, bacteria that establish ectosymbiotic associations with fungi, that is those located on the hyphal surface or in close vicinity to fungal mycelia, may not have an apparent net effect on fungal performance due to the low level of fitness dependency on their host. Our analysis supports the hypothesis that endosymbiotic bacteria of fungi are beneficial symbionts, and that effects of ectosymbiotic bacteria on fungal performance depends on the bacterial type involved in the interaction (e.g. helper versus pathogen of fungi). Ecological scenarios, where the presence of beneficial bacterial endosymbionts of fungi could be compromised, are also discussed.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current opinion in plant biology
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Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
The formation of a nitrogen-fixing cell mass on PLANT ROOTS following symbiotic infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.