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When entering aquatic ecosystems, hydrophobic organic chemicals like the fungicide fludioxonil partition to the sediment compartment where they pose potential risks to benthic invertebrates. To assess the ecological risk for sediment-dwelling invertebrates, nematodes are a suitable organism group, as they are abundantly present and possess key positions in the benthic food web. Therefore, the toxicity of the fungicide fludioxonil to nematodes was assessed in a standardized sediment toxicity test with Caenorhabditis elegans (ISO 10872), as well as in an outdoor sediment-spiked microcosm test system. In the microcosms, effects on the nematode species composition were studied, while exposure concentrations of fludioxonil were monitored in total sediment and pore water. Toxic effects on nematodes were better predicted using concentrations in pore water than total sediment concentrations. In laboratory single species tests, fludioxonil showed considerably lower toxicity in spiked field-collected sediment, compared to artificial ISO-sediments. Applying an assessment factor of 10 to the C. elegans 96-h EC, a Tier-1 RAC of 7.99 mg kg dry artificial sediment (corresponding to 69 μg l in pore water) appeared to be protective for nematode communities in microcosms that showed no response in total abundance and species composition up to 39.9 mg fludioxonil kg dry sediment (corresponding to 392 μg l in pore water).
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
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A genus of gram-negative, aerobic or microaerophilic, colorless filaments. It is nonfruiting, motile by gliding, and found in freshwater sediments and cow dung. One species (V. stercoraria) is considered morphologically to be a streptobacillus. That species is strictly aerobic and produces a homodimeric bacterial hemoglobin, especially under oxygen-limited growth conditions. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)
The study of life and ECOLOGIC SYSTEMS in bodies of FRESHWATER.
A genus of nematode parasites which inhabit the body cavity, serous membranes, and connective tissues of vertebrates. The parasitic species in humans is Dracunculus medinensis.
Indoor or outdoor areas designated for the parking of vehicles.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...