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Natural attenuation of pools and plumes of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform in the transition zone to bottom aquitards and the microorganisms involved in their degradation.

07:00 EST 22nd November 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Natural attenuation of pools and plumes of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform in the transition zone to bottom aquitards and the microorganisms involved in their degradation."

In the transition zone between aquifers and aquitards, DNAPL pools of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform accumulate because of heterogeneity in this zone. Natural attenuation occurs at pools and plumes, indicating that remediation might be possible. The aims of the study were: i) to assess the role of heterogeneity in the natural attenuation of these compounds, ii) determine degradation processes within this zone, and iii) identify dechlorinating microorganisms. For this, groundwater concentrations, redox-sensitive parameters, CSIA isotopic and DGGE molecular techniques were used. The main findings at depth of the transition zone were: (1) the important key control played by heterogeneity on natural attenuation of contaminants. (2) Heterogeneity caused the highly anoxic environment and dominant sulfate-reducing conditions, which accounts for more efficient natural attenuation. (3) Heterogeneity also explains that the transition zone constitutes an ecotone. (4) The bacteria size exclusion is governed by the pore throat threshold and determines the penetration of dechlorinating microorganisms into the finest sediments, which is relevant, since it implies the need to verify whether microorganisms proposed for bioremediation can penetrate these materials. (5) Reductive dechlorination caused the natural attenuation of contaminants in groundwater and porewater of fine sediments. In the case of carbon tetrachloride, it was an abiotic process biogenically mediated by A. suillum, a bacterium capable of penetrating the finest sediments. In the case of chloroform, it was a biotic process performed by a Clostridiales bacterium, which is unable to penetrate the finest materials. (6) Both microorganisms have potential to be biostimulated to dechlorinate contaminants in the source and the plume in the transition zone. These outcomes are particularly relevant given the longevity of DNAPL sources and have considerable environmental implications as many supply wells in industrial areas exploit aquifers contaminated by chlorinated solvents emerging from DNAPL pools accumulated on the low-conductivity layers in transition zones.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: The Science of the total environment
ISSN: 1879-1026
Pages: 135679

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Poisoning that results from ingestion, injection, inhalation, or skin absorption of CARBON TETRACHLORIDE.

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A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)

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