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Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and hyperphosphorylation of Tau protein, which ultimately leads to the formation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and cell death. Increasing evidence indicates that genistein, a soy isoflavone, has neuroprotective effects against Aβ-induced toxicity. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in its neuroprotection are not well understood. In this study, we have established a neuronal damage model using retinoic-acid differentiated SH-SY5Y cells treated with different concentrations of Aβ to investigate the effect of genistein against Aβ-induced cell death and the possible involvement of protein kinase B (PKB, also termed Akt), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), and Tau as an underlying mechanism to this neuroprotection. Differentiated SH-SY5Y cells were pre-treated for 24 hr with genistein (1 and 10 nM) and exposed to Aβ (25 μM), and we found that genistein partially inhibited Aβ induced cell death, primarily apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective effect of genistein was associated with the inhibition of Aβ-induced Akt inactivation and Tau hyperphosphorylation. These findings reinforce the neuroprotective effects of genistein against Aβ toxicity and provide evidence that its mechanism may involve regulation of Akt and Tau proteins.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Phytotherapy research : PTR
, a traditional herbal medicine widely used in Australia, North America, and Eastern Asia, has various therapeutic effects on inflammation, nephritis, hyperpigmentation, and diuresis. In this study, t...
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A type of extracellularly deposited substance composed of an amyloid protein and additional components including HEPARAN SULFATE PROTEOGLYCAN; LAMININ; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; SERUM AMYLOID P-COMPONENT; and APOLIPOPROTEINS E which together form characteristic amyloid fibrils. The core of amyloid fibrils is formed by the stacking of overlapping beta-pleated sheet domains of the amyloid protein. There are many different amyloid proteins that have been found forming the core of the fibrils in vivo. However, amyloid can be formed from any protein that exposes beta-pleated strand conformations during unfolding or refolding. A common characteristic of amyloid is the ability to bind such dyes as CONGO RED and thioflavine.
A precursor to the AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN (beta/A4). Alterations in the expression of the amyloid beta-protein precursor (ABPP) gene, located on chromosome 21, plays a role in the development of the neuropathology common to both ALZHEIMER DISEASE and DOWN SYNDROME. ABPP is associated with the extensive extracellular matrix secreted by neuronal cells. Upon cleavage, this precursor produces three proteins of varying amino acid lengths: 695, 751, and 770. The beta/A4 (695 amino acids) or beta-amyloid protein is the principal component of the extracellular amyloid in senile plaques found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE; DOWN SYNDROME and, to a limited extent, in normal aging.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
A pancreatic beta-cell hormone that is co-secreted with INSULIN. It displays an anorectic effect on nutrient metabolism by inhibiting gastric acid secretion, gastric emptying and postprandial GLUCAGON secretion. Islet amyloid polypeptide can fold into AMYLOID FIBRILS that have been found as a major constituent of pancreatic AMYLOID DEPOSITS.
Endopeptidases that are specific for AMYLOID PROTEIN PRECURSOR. Three secretase subtypes referred to as alpha, beta, and gamma have been identified based upon the region of amyloid protein precursor they cleave.
Of all the types of Dementia, Alzheimer's disease is the most common, affecting around 465,000 people in the UK. Neurons in the brain die, becuase 'plaques' and 'tangles' (mis-folded proteins) form in the brain. People with Al...
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
Alzheimer's Disease Anesthesia Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorders Dementia Epilepsy Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Neurology Pain Parkinson's Disease Sleep Disorders Neurology is the branch of me...