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Newborn humans and animals are highly susceptible to viral infections. The Aujeszky´s disease virus (ADV) is a porcine herpes virus 1 which infects the respiratory tract and is lethal during the first weeks of life. Current intramuscular vaccines, applied at weaning, induce poor mucosal immunity and frequently fail to prevent and control the disease. Additionally, early vaccination has not been studied thoroughly. Therefore, we studied a systemic/mucosal route of immunization using an inactivated ADV vaccine in two-and fourteen-day-old groups of unweaned SPF miniature Vietnamese pigs, measuring the anti ADV antibody (ELISA) and cytokine (qPCR) responses in systemic and mucosal samples. The results showed that the serum ADV-specific IgG response was higher in the 14-day groups. However, the nasal IgA responses were similar in immunized groups, although the response in saliva was higher in the 2-day old group. Moreover, in vitro ADV stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lung cells from immunized pigs showed higher IFN-γ mRNA production in the 14-day old group than in younger animals and similar levels of IL-4 and IL-10 transcripts. Our data suggest that early mucosal immunization induce humoral and cellular systemic and mucosal immune responses against ADV in young pigs and younger animals may have compensatory mechanisms to overcome early immaturity and maternal-driven immune interference. Therefore, early protection in susceptible animals could be induced using this immunization protocol, opening the possibility for its application against other viral pathogens of pigs and for traslational studies in humans.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases
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Human immune-response, D-related antigen encoded by the D locus on chromosome 6 and found on lymphoid cells. It is in linkage disequilibrium with HLA-A1 and HLA-B8. The HLA-DR3 antigen is strongly associated with celiac disease, Grave's disease, dermatitis herpetiformis, early-age onset myasthenia gravis, systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile diabetes, and opportunistic infections in AIDS.
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