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This study assesses the volatility of 15 elements (As, Bi, C, Cd, Cl, Cu, K, Mn, Na, P, Pb, S, Sb, Sn, and Zn) during thermal processing of fly ashes obtained from four waste-to-energy plants and one wood-combustion plant. Differences in volatility in oxidising and reducing atmospheres (air and 10% H/90% N) were assessed at two temperatures, 700 and 1000 °C. P and Mn were predominately retained in all ashes regardless of the operating atmosphere and temperature. Other elements showed significant variation in volatility depending on the type of fly ash, atmosphere, and temperature. Heat-treatment of the wood-combustion fly ash in the air atmosphere resulted in low release of K, Na, and all investigated heavy metals and metalloids. Several valuable elements, including Zn, Sb, Sn, and Bi, were significantly more volatile in the reducing atmosphere than in the oxidising atmosphere, particularly at 1000 °C. Other elements were either less volatile, equally volatile, or only marginally more volatile when the ashes were heated at 1000 °C in the reducing atmosphere. These elements include C, Cl, Cu, and, in the case of fly ashes derived from municipal solid waste, Cd and Pb. A two-step process, in which municipal solid waste incineration fly ash is first heated in an oxidising atmosphere and then in a reducing atmosphere, is proposed for production of a chloride-free zinc concentrate. Evaluation of the two-step process at 880 °C shows good potential for selective volatilisation of Zn with other valuable elements, including Sn, Sb, and Bi.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Waste management (New York, N.Y.)
Emissions from coal-fired power plants (CFPP) are one of the major sources of air pollutants in the industrial sector. We characterized the metal element mass concentration in fine and coarse particle...
In the article the results of major and trace elements investigation in freshwater lakes of Vecherny Oasis (Enderby Land, East Antarctica) are considered. Water sampling was carried out during seasona...
Four types of pellets and three agro-fuels were chemically characterised and burned in a pellet stove. To assess the influence of the material composing the firebox and the combustion efficiency of di...
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Eastern and North-Eastern regions of Kazakhstan are considered to be environmentally disadvantaged due to industrial pollution and activity of the former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site. Ferrous metal...
The main objective of this study is to evaluate the systemic impact of salting out of trace elements (TE) by metallic and nonmetallic implantable medical devices (IMD) and in particular th...
It has been observed that patients on total parenteral nutrition (TPN) have high plasma chromium level. There is reason to believe that TPN solutions contain chromium and possibly other tr...
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) affects millions of people in the United States; each year, more people die from CVD than from any other disease. There are many dietary and lifestyle factors ...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate hair trace elements and toxic metals and plasma total antioxidant activity in children with recurrent wheezing and to evaluate whether these toxic ...
Objectives: To evaluate maternal serum trace elements and heavy metals namely, aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As),...
A method of simultaneously imaging and measuring elements at the submicron level. Nuclear microscopy uses a focused high-energy ion beam of PROTONS and ALPHA PARTICLES (a nuclear microprobe) to interact with the sample. The resulting emitted radiations are analyzed by a group of techniques simultaneously: PARTICLE INDUCED X RAY EMISSION SPECTROMETRY for minor and trace element identification; Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy to assess sample thickness and bulk elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy to assess sample structure and density.
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Recesses of the kidney pelvis which divides into two wide, cup-shaped major renal calices, with each major calix subdivided into 7 to 14 minor calices. Urine empties into a minor calix from collecting tubules, then passes through the major calix, renal pelvis, and ureter to enter the urinary bladder. (From Moore, Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 3d ed, p211)
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.