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The habituation of cultured cells to cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors such as dichlobenil (dichlorobenzonitrile, DCB) has proven a valuable tool to elucidate the mechanisms involved in plant cell wall structural plasticity. Our group has demonstrated that maize cells cope with DCB through a modified cell wall in which cellulose is replaced by a more extensive network of highly cross-linked feruloylated arabinoxylans. In order to gain further insight into the contribution of phenolics to the early remodelling of cellulose-deficient cell walls, a comparative HPLC-PAD analysis was carried out of hydroxycinnamates esterified into nascent and cell wall polysaccharides obtained from non-habituated (NH) and habituated to low DCB concentrations (1.5 μM; H) maize suspension-cultured cells. Incipient DCB-habituated cell walls showed significantly higher levels of esterified ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid throughout the culture cycle. In terms of cell wall fortification, ferulic acid is associated to arabinoxylan crosslinking whereas the increase of p-coumaric suggests an early lignification response. As expected, the level of hydroxycinnamates esterified into nascent polysaccharides was also higher in DCB-habituated cells indicating an overexpression of phenylpropanoid pathway. Due to their key role in cell wall strengthening, special attention was paid into the dimerization pattern of ferulic acid. A quantitative comparison of diferulate dehydrodimers (DFAs) between cell lines and cell compartments revealed that an extra dimerization took place in H cells when both nascent and mature cell wall polysaccharides were analysed. In addition, qualitative differences in the ferulic acid coupling pattern were detected in H cells, allowing us to suggest that 8-O-4'-DFA and 8-5'-DFA featured the ferulic acid dimerization when it occurred in the protoplasmic and cell wall fractions respectively. Both qualitative and quantitative differences in the phenolic profile between NH and H cells point to a regioselectivity in the ferulate dehydrodimerization.
This article was published in the following journal.
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A hexosyltransferase involved in the transfer of disaccharide molecules to the peptidoglycan structure of the CELL WALL SKELETON. It plays an important role in the genesis of the bacterial CELL WALL.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A mucoprotein found in the cell wall of various types of bacteria. It has adjuvant and antitumor activities and has been used to augment the production of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells.