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The cerebellum is strongly implicated in learning new motor skills. Theta burst stimulation (TBS), a form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, can be used to influence cerebellar activity. Our aim was to explore the potential of cerebellar TBS in modulating visuo-motor adaptation, a form of motor learning, in young healthy subjects. Cerebellar TBS was applied immediately before the learning phase of a visuo-motor adaptation task (VAT), in two different experiments. Firstly, we evaluated the behavioral effects of continuous (cTBS), intermittent (iTBS) or sham TBS on the learning, re-adaptation and de-adaptation phases of VAT. Subsequently, we investigated the changes induced by iTBS or sham TBS on motor cortical activity related to each phase of VAT, as measured by concomitant TMS/EEG recordings. We found that cerebellar TBS induced a robust bidirectional modulation of the VAT performance. More specifically, cerebellar iTBS accelerated visuo-motor adaptation, by speeding up error reduction in response to a novel perturbation. This gain of function was still maintained when the novel acquired motor plan was tested during a subsequent phase of re-adaptation. On the other hand, cerebellar cTBS induced the opposite effect, slowing the rate of error reduction in both learning and re-adaptation phases. Additionally, TMS/EEG recordings showed that cerebellar iTBS induced specific changes of cortical activity in the interconnected motor networks. The improved performance was accompanied by an increase of TMS-evoked cortical activity and a generalized desynchronization of TMS-evoked cortical oscillations. Taken together, our behavioral and neurophysiological findings provide the first-time multimodal evidence of the potential efficacy of cerebellar TBS in improving motor learning, by promoting successful cerebellar-cortical reorganization.
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Sequence learning underlies numerous motor, cognitive, and social skills. Previous models and empirical investigations of sequence learning in humans and non-human animals have implicated cortico-basa...
Upper limb dysfunction is one of common sequelae of stroke which limits daily activities and decreases quality of life of patients, as well as increasing caregiving burden on families. Theta burst sti...
Patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) experience bothersome motor fluctuations and Levodopa-induced Dyskinesias (LIDs). Cerebellar continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) was used as an inhibitory ...
Classical models of cerebellar learning posit that climbing fibers operate according to a supervised learning rule to instruct changes in motor output by signaling the occurrence of movement errors. H...
Coordinated movements are achieved by well-timed activation of selected muscles. This process relies on intact cerebellar circuitry, as demonstrated by motor impairments following cerebellar lesions. ...
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation primed with continous theta burst stimulation (cTBS), on top of a standard robot-assisted traini...
This research seeks to study the physiological effects of theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the brains of healthy controls using functional MRI and spectroscopy.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of theta-burst rTMS in patients with major depression. Patients will be randomized to receive ether left-sided intermittent the...
For the proposed 2-year study, the investigators will conduct a within-subject, counterbalanced investigation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic s...
This study evaluates an accelerated schedule of theta-burst stimulation using a transcranial magnetic stimulation device for improvement of depressive symptoms and drinking behavior in ind...
Process in which individuals take the initiative, in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating learning goals, identifying resources for learning, choosing and implementing learning strategies and evaluating learning outcomes (Knowles, 1975)
Information communicated to the learner that is intended to modify the learner’s thinking or behavior for the purpose of improving learning.
Behavioral science applied with the aim of improving socially important issues such as behavior problems and learning. For individuals diagnosed with intellectual and developmental disabilities including AUTISM, techniques can be categorized as comprehensive or focused.
A subregion of the CEREBELLAR CORTEX, located along the midsagittal plane of the CEREBELLUM.
Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharynx, larynx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES. Motor ataxia may be associated with CEREBELLAR DISEASES; CEREBRAL CORTEX diseases; THALAMIC DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; injury to the RED NUCLEUS; and other conditions.