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The influence of unhealthy food environments on residents' eating behavior has been previously documented. Yet, socioeconomic differences across areas are less studied. Participatory studies provide relevant knowledge to better inform future nutrition interventions. We conducted a participatory Photovoice project in which residents interpreted the influence of the local food environment on eating behaviors across three neighborhoods of contrasting area-level socioeconomic status (SES) in Bilbao, Spain. From April to July 2017, a total of 23 residents participated in the three Photovoice groups. Each group critically discussed their photographs (N = 110) in groups of 6-9 participants along six group sessions. Through a consensus-building process, participants identified 27 emerging categories choosing finally 39 related photographs, which followed six conceptual main themes characterizing their local food environment: 1) unhealthy eating behaviors, 2) cultural diversity, 3) retail transformation, 4) social relationships, 5) precariousness, and 6) healthy eating. Although high food quality and fresh products may portray a general healthy food environment in all three neighborhoods, participants discussed why some residents still adapt unhealthy eating behaviors characterized by excessive consumption of alcohol (high-SES), sugar loaded foods (high- and middle-SES) and fast food (middle and low-SES). This photovoice participatory methodology helps highlighting important similarities and differences regarding food environment perceptions in the whole socioeconomic spectrum of any given city. This type of participatory approach help guiding local policies and interventions promoting healthier local food environments to improve populations' diets.
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Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.
Local surroundings with which cells interact by processing various chemical and physical signals, and by contributing their own effects to this environment.
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A diverse genus of minute freshwater CRUSTACEA, of the suborder CLADOCERA. They are a major food source for both young and adult freshwater fish.
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