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C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is an endogenous adipogenesis regulator whose plasma levels in childhood are known, while no data are available on its expression. Our aim was to evaluate both CNP plasma levels and CNP system expression in whole blood obtained from normal-weight (N, n = 24) and obese (O, n = 16) adolescents (age:13.5 ± 0.4 years). Endothelial function was assessed measuring reactive hyperemia index (RHI). CNP plasma levels, evaluated with specific RIA, resulted significantly lower in O than in N (6.1 ± 0.8 vs.15.2 ± 1.3 pg/mL; p < 0.0001), while CNP/NPR-B/NPR-C mRNA, measured by Real-Time PCR, resulted similar in N (4.1 ± 1.7; 5.0 ± 1.6; 2.2 ± 0.9) and in O (4.3 ± 1.6; 3.5 ± 1.1; 2.3 ± 0.8). RHI was significantly lower in O than in N (1.4 ± 0.08 vs.2.1 ± 0.04, p < 0.0001). Dividing all subjects according to the RHI median value, irrespective of the presence or absence of obesity (Group 1 > 1.9, n = 23, Group 2 < 1.9, n = 17), CNP plasma concentrations resulted significantly (p = 0.014) higher in Group 1 (14.6 ± 1.6) than in Group 2 (7.5 ± 1.0), showing a significant correlation with RHI (p = 0.0026), while CNP mRNA expression was, surprisingly, higher in Group 2 (7.0 ± 2.3) than in Group 1 (1.8 ± 0.4; p = 0.02). NPR-B mRNA resulted similar in both Groups (4.3 ± 1.6; 4.7 ± 1.3) and NPR-C significantly higher in Group 2 (p = 0.02). Our data suggest different trends between CNP plasma levels and expression, assessed for the first time in whole blood, that could reflect changes occurring both at CNP transcriptional level in activated leucocytes due to inflammation, and at circulating levels, due to CNP paracrine/autocrine activities. This could represent an interesting area for new therapies able to modulate endothelial dysfunction.
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The investigators hypothesize that baseline plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and migration inhibitory factor (MIF) levels are surrogate markers of clinical severity of PAH and that c...
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Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).
A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
A nonapeptide that is found in neurons, peripheral organs, and plasma. This neuropeptide induces mainly delta sleep in mammals. In addition to sleep, the peptide has been observed to affect electrophysiological activity, neurotransmitter levels in the brain, circadian and locomotor patterns, hormonal levels, psychological performance, and the activity of neuropharmacological drugs including their withdrawal.
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Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...
Obesity is the condition in which excess fat has accumulated in the body (mostly in subcutaneous tissues). clinical obesity is considered to be present when a person has a BMI of over 30 (Oxford Dictionary of Medicine). It is becoming increasing common i...