Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
IFN-γ (Interferon-gamma) is a pleiotropic cytokine. It is often involved in a variety of physiological processes by binding to the cell surface transmembrane receptor (IFN-γR) to initiate a series of signalling pathways that transmit external signals from cell surface receptors to the cell nucleus. Heparan sulphate (HS), a highly sulphated linear polysaccharide, is ubiquitous on the mammalian cell surface and extracellular matrix. Electrostatic interactions can be generated between the highly sulphated HS region and specific basic amino acid residues in the IFN-γ structure, thereby detaining IFN-γ on the cell surface, and the concentration of IFN-γ on the cell surface is thus, changed. IFN-γ retained on the cell surface will optimize the binding of IFN-γ to the transmembrane receptor resulting in high efficiency signalling. Heparin is a glycosaminoglycan with a structure similar to HS. The structural similarity provides a basis for modelling exogenous heparin dependence for interference with IFN-γ function. This model can be summarized as follows: First, the competitive binding effect; heparin bound to cytokines by competing with membrane-associated HS, causes a decrease in cytokine concentration on the cell surface. Second, the principle of priority occupancy; heparin can occupy the receptor binding site on cytokines, partially preventing the IFN-γ-IFN-γR interaction. These two models interfere with IFN-γ signal transmission. To decipher the mechanism by which heparin influences IFN-γ activity, studies of the structure-activity relationship are in progress. This paper summarizes research progress on the IFN-γ signalling pathway, heparin interference with IFN-γ activity and the structure-activity relationship between heparin and IFN-γ.
This article was published in the following journal.
The extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins fibronectin (FN) and type I collagen (collagen I) are co-distributed in many tissues and collagens have been shown to depend on a FN matrix for fibrillogenesis....
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is a relatively common drug-induced immune disorder that can have life-threatening consequences for affected patients. Immune complexes consisting of heparin, platelet...
Neisserial Heparin Binding Antigen (NHBA) is a surface-exposed lipoprotein of Neisseria meningitidis and a component of the Bexsero vaccine. NHBA is characterized by the presence of a highly conserved...
One of the biggest challenges faced by healthcare providers is the treatment of chronic, non-healing wounds. This paper reports for the first time in the UK the results of five case studies in which a...
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) regulate embryonic development and homeostasis, including tissue and organ repair and specific aspects of metabolism. The basic FGF and acidic FGF, now known as FGF2 a...
ARENA aims to inform patients about the symptoms and the risks of atrial fibrilation. The study design includes three study arms: 1. ARENA Intervention: This project will examine the e...
Patients at BWH receiving unfractionated heparin or enoxaparin who subsequently develop heparin induced thrombocytopenia will be identified via a computer generated report designed for the...
This study is to understand the changes occurring in a blood clotting protein, von Willebrand factor (VWF), in patients undergoing cardiac surgery who receive the blood thinner called Hepa...
Study has been completed and is in the data analysis and manuscript writing phase of the project.
Randomised, double blind trial in non-intensive care trauma patients comparing unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT)...
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins that contain a short cytoplasmic domain, a single-span transmembrane domain, and an extracellular domain with heparin sulfate and CHONDROITIN SULFATE chains. Syndecans interact with a variety of heparin-binding INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS and may play a role in modulating cellular signaling in during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT, tumorigenesis, and angiogenesis.
Coagulant substances inhibiting the anticoagulant action of heparin.
A heparin fraction with a mean molecular weight of 4500 daltons. It is isolated from porcine mucosal heparin and used as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A family of GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL-anchored, cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans that may play a role in CELL GROWTH PROCESSES and CELL DIFFERENTIATION by modulating ligand-receptor interactions.
Heparin fractions with a molecular weight usually between 4000 and 6000 kD. These low-molecular-weight fractions are effective antithrombotic agents. Their administration reduces the risk of hemorrhage, they have a longer half-life, and their platelet interactions are reduced in comparison to unfractionated heparin. They also provide an effective prophylaxis against postoperative major pulmonary embolism.
Cytokines include chemokines, lymphokines, and monokines. Cells of the immune system communicate with one another by releasing and responding to chemical messengers called cytokines. These proteins are secreted by immune cells and act on other cells to...
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...