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In this study, a new approach to measure metabolic activity of yeast via the Crabtree effect is described. BARDS is an analytical technique developed to aid powder and tablet characterisation by monitoring changes in the compressibility of a solvent during solute dissolution. It is a rapid and simple method which utilises a magnetic stir bar to mix added solute and induce the acoustic resonance of a vessel containing a fixed volume of solvent. In this study it is shown that initiation of fermentation in a yeast suspension, in aqueous buffer, is accompanied by reproducible changes in the frequency of induced acoustic resonance. These changes signify increased compressibility of the suspension due to CO release by the yeast. A simple standardised BARDS protocol reveals yeast carbon source preferences and can generate quantitative kinetic data on carbon source metabolism which are characteristic of each yeast strain. The Crawford-Woods equation can be used to quantify total gaseous CO produced by a given number of viable yeast when supplied with a fixed amount of carbon source. This allows for a value to be calculated for the amount of gaseous CO produced by each yeast cell. The approach has the potential to transform the way in which yeast metabolism is tracked and potentially provide an orthogonal or surrogate method to determining viability, vitality and attenuation measurements in the future.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of biotechnology
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Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.
Significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real gross domestic product, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales. (National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, www.nber.org/cycles.html, accessed 4/23/2009)
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.