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After spinal cord injury (SCI), the inhibitory molecules derived from scars at the lesion sites and the limited regenerative capacity of neuronal axons pose difficulties for the recovery after SCI. Remodeling of cytoskeleton structures including microtubule assembly and tubulin post-translational modification are widely accepted to play a crucial role in initiation of growth cone and regrowth of injured axon. Although increasing studies have focused on the association between tubulin acetylation and autophagy due to the role of tubulin acetylation in organelles and substances transport, there are no studies exploring the effect of tubulin acetylation on autophagy after spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we found that histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) was significantly up-regulated after SCI, while inhibition of HDAC6 by Tubastatin A induced functional recovery after SCI. In view of enzyme-dependent and -independent mechanisms of HDAC6 to adjust diverse cellular processes, such as autophagy, the ubiquitin proteasome system and post-translational modification of tubulin, we mainly focused on the significance of HDAC6 in axonal regeneration and autophagy after SCI. Western blotting, Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence staining were conducted to showed that Tubastatin A treatment in nocodazole-treated cells and mice suffering from SCI prompted acetylation and stabilization of microtubules and thus restored transport function, which may contribute to restored autophagic flux and increased axonal length. Whereas inhibition of degradation of autolysosomes by bafilomycin A1 (Baf-A1) reversed functional recovery caused by Tubastatin A, revealing the association between tubulin acetylation and autophagy, which supports HDAC6 inhibition as a potential target for SCI treatment.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Experimental neurology
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A histone deacetylase subtype that is found along with HISTONE DEACETYLASE 2; RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 4; and RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 7 as core components of histone deacetylase complexes.
A histone deacetylase subtype that is found along with HISTONE DEACETYLASE 1; RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 4; and RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 7 as core components of histone deacetylase complexes.
A class II histone deacetylase that removes acetyl groups from N-terminal LYSINES of HISTONE H2A; HISTONE H2B; HISTONE H3; and HISTONE H4. It plays a critical role in EPIGENETIC REPRESSION and regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, as well as CELL MOTILITY through deacetylation of TUBULIN. It also targets misfolded proteins for clearance by AUTOPHAGY when MOLECULAR CHAPERONE-mediated folding is overwhelmed.
A multisubunit enzyme complex that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION by deacetylating the HISTONE residues of NUCLEOSOMES.
A enzyme complex involved in the remodeling of NUCLEOSOMES. The complex is comprised of at least seven subunits and includes both histone deacetylase and ATPase activities.
Spinal Cord Disorders
The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs down the middle of the back which carry signals back and forth between the body and brain. It is protected by vertebrae, which are the bone disks that make up the spine. An accident that damages the verte...
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical re...