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Several prostaglandins (PGs) have been identified in different insect species. However, their biosynthesis and physiological roles in insects remain unclear. PGD is synthesized by isomerization from PGH in mammals. This study identified a PGD synthase (SePGDS) in a lepidopteran insect, Spodoptera exigua. It showed sequence homology (32.8%) with human PGDS. Based on its conserved active site residues, its N-terminal tyrosine (Y8) was predicted to mediate electron relay from glutathione to PGH substrate, which was distinct from the catalysis of PGE (= PGD isomer) synthase (SePGES). SePGDS was highly expressed in larval and adult stages. RNA interference (RNAi) of SePGDS expression resulted in immunosuppression of cellular immune responses by suppressing the expression of actin polymerization-associated genes. It also suppressed the expression of some antimicrobial genes. Such immunosuppression induced by RNAi treatment was specifically rescued by the addition of PGD, but not its precursor, arachidonic acid. Such RNAi treatment in adults prevented egg development in females by inhibiting choriogenesis. RNAi treatment also suppressed nurse cell dumping to growing oocytes. However, the addition of PGD rescued egg development of RNAi-treated females. These results suggest that SePGDS is responsible for the production of PGD which mediates immune and reproductive processes of S. exigua.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: General and comparative endocrinology
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A constitutively-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
Cell surface receptors that bind prostaglandins with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their relative affinities for the endogenous prostaglandins. They include those which prefer prostaglandin D2 (DP receptors), prostaglandin E2 (EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors), prostaglandin F2-alpha (FP receptors), and prostacyclin (IP receptors).
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
Oxidoreductases that catalyze the GLUTATHIONE-dependent oxidoreduction of PROSTAGLANDIN H2 to PROSTAGLANDIN E2.