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Since its discovery in birds, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) has triggered investigation in the other groups of vertebrates. In the present study, we have identified a single gnih gene in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla), a representative species of a basal group of teleosts (Elopomorphs). We have also retrieved a single gnih gene in Osteoglossomorphs, as well as in more recently emerged teleosts, Clupeocephala. Phylogeny and synteny analyses allowed us to infer that one of the two gnih paralogs emerged from the teleost-specific whole genome duplication (TWGD or 3R), would have been lost shortly after the 3R, before the emergence of the basal groups of teleosts. This led to the presence of a single gnih in extant teleosts as in other vertebrates. Two gnih paralogs were still found in some teleost species, such as in salmonids, but resulting from the additional whole genome duplication that specifically occurred in this lineage (4R). Eel gnih was mostly expressed in the diencephalon part of the brain, as analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Cloning of eel gnih cDNA confirmed that the sequence of the GnIH precursor encoding three putative mature GnIH peptides (aaGnIH-1, aaGnIH-2 and aaGnIH-3), which were synthesized and tested for their direct effects on eel pituitary cells in vitro. Eel GnIH peptides inhibited the expression of gonadotropin subunits (lhβ, fshβ, and common a-subunit) as well as of GnRH receptor (gnrh-r2), with no effect on tshβ and gh expression. The inhibitory effect of GnIH peptides on gonadotropic function in a basal teleost is in agreement with an ancestral inhibitory role of GnIH in the neuroendocrine control of reproduction in vertebrates.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: General and comparative endocrinology
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A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
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