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Vaccination against rabies and routine antibody testing of subjects participating in programs for the surveillance and control of rabies in animals is strongly recommended. The scope of this study is to describe the antibody level as measured by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) after primary and booster intramuscular vaccination with a purified vero-cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) in high-risk professionals and to determine the influence of an array of factors on antibody level, that is, time elapsed since primary immunization series and booster dose, sex, age, pathologic conditions, high-risk occupation, and peak antibody level after initial scheme and booster dose. A primary series of three doses of PVRV was administered and a commercial ELISA was recommended 14 days postimmunization with continuous repetition at 6 months and yearly intervals for the laboratory personnel and the rest of the professionals, respectively. The protective antibody titer was defined as a minimum of 0.5 equivalent units/mL (EU/mL) (seroconvertion) and a booster dose was applied if the titer was determined nonprotective. The seroconversion rate (SCR) after primary vaccination was 100%, with a geometric mean titer (GMT) of 2.90 EU/mL (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.85-3.45). After booster vaccination due to nonprotective titer, the SCR was 100% and the GMT increased by 678% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 514-887) reaching 4.25 EU/mL (
4.00-4.60), 2.5 times higher than the GMT elicited by the primary vaccine scheme in the respective recipients. The titer dropped by 1.20% per month (95%
0.52-1.89) regardless of booster administration or any other factor. Women had 51% higher titer compared with men (95%
6-116). High-risk professionals should be verified for adequate antibody titers, but routine administration of a single booster dose of PVRV 1 year after the primary series could be considered; more evidence is needed to support the benefit in terms of immunity and logistics.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.)
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Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Techniques involving the demonstration or measurement of an immune response, including antibody production or assay, ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY REACTIONS, serologic cross-reactivity, DELAYED HYPERSENSITIVITY reactions, IMMUNIZATION, or heterogenetic responses.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).
An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produc...
A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one ...