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Fluorescence imaging represents a cornerstone technology for studying biological function at the cellular and molecular levels. The technology's centerpiece is a prolific collection of genetic reporters based on the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and related analogs. More than two decades of protein engineering have endowed the GFP repertoire with an incredible assortment of fluorescent proteins, allowing scientists immense latitude in choosing reporters tailored to various cellular and environmental contexts. Nevertheless, GFP and derivative reporters have specific limitations that hinder their unrestricted use for molecular imaging. These challenges have inspired the development of new reporter proteins and imaging mechanisms. Here, we review how these developments are expanding the frontiers of reporter gene techniques to enable non-destructive studies of cell function in anaerobic environments and deep inside intact animals - two important biological contexts that are fundamentally incompatible with the use of GFP-based reporters.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Bioconjugate chemistry
Tagging proteins with fluorescent reporters such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a powerful method to determine protein localization, especially when proteins are tagged in the endogenous contex...
Fluorescent transcriptional reporters are widely used as signaling reporters and biomarkers to monitor pathway activities and determine cell type identities. However, a large amount of dynamic informa...
Fluorescent proteins, such as the green fluorescent protein (GFP), are used for detection of cellular components and events. However, GFP and its derivatives have limited usage under anaerobic conditi...
To describe mumps virus (MuV) used as a vector to express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or red fluorescent protein (RFP) genes.
A para-N-phenyl-amino group significantly increases the fluorescence quantum yield of N-phenyl-4-aminostilbene by the "amino conjugation effect", but, in contrast, a para-amino group in the para-amino...
Indocyanine green is a dye, using in surgery to bring out the intraoperative evaluation of tissue perfusion. After intravenous injection of indocyanine green, using a near infrared light,...
The aim of the study is to establish a new and more accurate method to visualize the peritoneal changes caused by endometriosis using Indocyanine Green mediated fluorescence imaging. The h...
The goal of this clinical research study is to find lymph nodes before surgery using a dye called indocyanine green (IC-Green). Objectives: 1. To determine the feasibility of usi...
This study aims to develop a standardized universal imaging protocol for ICG-guided fluorescent total thyroidectomy, including quantitative evaluations of the fluorescent signal. Therefore...
A current gap in the use indocyanine green fluorescence to isolate the biliary system is the dosing amount necessary to fluoresce the biliary system without "over" fluorescing the liver an...
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.
Algae of the division Chlorophyta, in which the green pigment of CHLOROPHYLL is not masked by other pigments. Green algae have over 7000 species and live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater. They are more closely related to the green vascular land PLANTS than any other group of algae.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A genus of obligate anaerobic METHANOCALDOCOCCACEAE whose organisms are non-motile despite possessing long thin flagella. These methanogens are found in deep-sea vent and other hydrothermal environments.
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...