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It is known that adaptive evolution in permanently cold environments drives cold adaptation in enzymes. However, how the relatively high enzyme activities were achieved in cold environments prior to cold adaptation of enzymes is unclear. Here we report that an Antarctic strain of Chlorella vulgaris, called NJ-7, acquired the capability to grow at near 0 °C temperatures and greatly enhanced freezing tolerance after systematic increases in abundance of enzymes/proteins and positive selection of certain genes. Having diverged from the temperate strain UTEX259 of the same species 2.5 (1.1-4.1) to 2.6 (1.0-4.5) million years ago, NJ-7 retained the basic mesophilic characteristics and genome structures. Nitrate reductases in the two strains are highly similar in amino acid sequence and optimal temperature, but the NJ-7 one showed significantly higher abundance and activity. Quantitative proteomic analyses indicated that several cryoprotective proteins (LEA), many enzymes involved in carbon metabolism and a large number of other enzymes/proteins, were more abundant in NJ-7 than in UTEX259. Like nitrate reductase, most of these enzymes were not upregulated in response to cold stress. Thus, compensation of low specific activities by increased enzyme abundance appears to be an important strategy for early stage cold adaptation to Antarctica, but such enzymes are mostly not involved in cold acclimation upon transfer from favorable temperatures to near 0 °C temperatures.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Molecular biology and evolution
Light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) absorbs light energy and transfers it primarily to photosystem II in green algae and land plants. Although the trimeric structure of LHCII is conserved between the ...
Protocol for a systematic review on interventions for caregivers of persons with mild cognitive impairment and early dementia: does early stage intervention improve caregiver well-being and ability to provide care?
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In lakes, cyanobacterial blooms are frequently associated with green algae and dominate the phytoplankton community in successive waves. In the present study, the interactions between Microcystis aeru...
Desmodesmus costato-granulatus (Skuja) Hegewald 2000 (Sphaeropleales, Chlorophyta) is a small, spineless green alga that is abundant in the freshwater phytoplankton of oligo- to eutrophic waters world...
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A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (ALGAE, GREEN). Irish moss is really a red alga (ALGAE, RED). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.
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A type of PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS derived from early stage human embryos, up to and including the BLASTOCYST stage.
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Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...