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The rapid emergence of novel psychoactive substances within the past decade has raised new concerns about the harms associated with unregulated drug use. Synthetic analogues-chemically related to established psychoactive substances like cannabis sativa and catha edulis-in particular have proliferated rapidly, allowing little opportunity for scientific research or the establishment of informal guidelines for safe use among consumers. To explore how synthetic substance use relates to other forms of use, this paper presents an analysis of polysubstance use among a sample of 676 people who use illicit substances in the United States. Participants were sampled from three greater metropolitan areas (Houston/Galveston, Texas; New York City; and New Orleans, Louisiana). Study researchers used cluster-type analyses to develop dendrogram visualizations of the interrelationships between substance types. Results suggest a considerable variation in substance and polysubstance use patterns across states in the U.S. Polysubstance use clustered around well-observed combinations like MDMA/cannabis and cocaine/heroin. Synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones showed no strong clustering with other substances. High rates of binge drinking among users of other substances further support the importance of interventions sensitive to the clinical challenges of polysubstance use.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
To (1) identify population-level classes of polysubstance use among young Australians between 2004 and 2016, (2) test if these classes changed over the same period, in terms of class prevalence and pr...
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A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease. Included are such techniques as IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION of chromosomes for CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS; OLIGONUCLEOTIDE ARRAY SEQUENCE ANALYSIS of gene expression patterns in disease states; identification of pathogenic organisms by analysis of species specific DNA sequences; and detection of mutations with POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
A method of differentiating individuals based on the analysis of qualitative or quantitative biological traits or patterns. This process which has applications in forensics and identity theft prevention includes DNA profiles or DNA fingerprints, hand fingerprints, automated facial recognition, iris scan, hand geometry, retinal scan, vascular patterns, automated voice pattern recognition, and ultrasound of fingers.
A method of chemical analysis based on the detection of characteristic radionuclides following a nuclear bombardment. It is also known as radioactivity analysis. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing as well as dispensing drugs and medicines. It is a health profession that links health sciences with chemical sciences and aims to ensure the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs. The scope of...