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Temper outbursts are a severe problem for people with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). Previous reports indicate that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) may reduce maladaptive behaviour in neurodevelopmental disorders, including PWS. We systematically investigated the effectiveness of transcutaneous VNS (t-VNS) in PWS. Using a non-blind single case repeat measures modified ABA design, with participants as their own controls, t-VNS was evaluated in five individuals with PWS [three males; age 22-41 (M = 26.8)]. After a baseline phase, participants received four-hours of t-VNS daily for 12 months, followed by one month of daily t-VNS for two-hours. The primary outcome measure was the mean number of behavioural outbursts per day. Secondary outcomes included findings from behavioural questionnaires and both qualitative and goal attainment interviews. Four of the five participants who completed the study exhibited a statistically significant reduction in number and severity of temper outbursts after approximately nine months of daily four-hour t-VNS. Subsequent two-hour daily t-VNS was associated with increased outbursts for all participants, two reaching significance. Questionnaire and interview data supported these findings, the latter indicating potential mechanisms of action. No serious safety issues were reported. t-VNS is an effective, novel and safe intervention for chronic temper outbursts in PWS. We propose these changes are mediated through vagal projections and their effects both centrally and on the functioning of the parasympathetic nervous system. These findings challenge our present biopsychosocial understanding of such behaviours suggesting that there is a single major mechanism that is modifiable using t-VNS. This intervention is potentially generalizable across other clinical groups. Future research should address the lack of a sham condition in this study along with the prevalence of high drop out rates, and the potential effects of different stimulation intensities, frequencies and pulse widths.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
Migraine is a common episodic neurological disorder. Literature has shown that transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) at 1 Hz can significantly relieve migraine symptoms. However, ...
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a palliative treatment for patients with refractory epilepsy; however, the misplacement of electrodes may cause complications and, thus, needs to be avoided. We herein...
Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) is a neuromodulation device approved for the treatment of medically refractory epilepsy. Worldwide, only 35 cases of pregnancies that has been described. This study aims ...
The present study investigated the effects of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation on cardiac vagal activity, the activity of the vagus nerve regulating cardiac functioning. We applied stimulation o...
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a common treatment for medically-intractable epilepsy, but response rates are highly variable with no pre-operative means of identifying good candidates. This study ai...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate if multiple therapy sessions of Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (tVNS) combined with robotic arm therapy lead to a greater functional recove...
Electrical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) was approved by FDA for treatment of chronic recurrent depression in 2005. Recently, non-invasive, transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation...
The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation 1. on the noradrenergic system in the brain and 2. on memory, in healthy volunteers. ...
The purpose of the DAN-VNS study is to investigate the effects of non-invasive vagal nerve stimulation on gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, bloating, and diarrhea in peop...
This study evaluate the cognitive functions of patient after hip or kneel replacement.Half of the patient will receive transcutaneous vagus nerve electrical stimulation during the surgery ...
An adjunctive treatment for PARTIAL EPILEPSY and refractory DEPRESSION that delivers electrical impulses to the brain via the VAGUS NERVE. A battery implanted under the skin supplies the energy.
Traumatic injuries to the VAGUS NERVE. Because the vagus nerve innervates multiple organs, injuries in the nerve fibers may result in any gastrointestinal organ dysfunction downstream of the injury site.
The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.