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Beneficial microorganisms are generally known to activate plant defense against biotic challenges. However, the molecular mechanisms by which activated plants react more rapidly and actively to pests remain still largely unclear. Tomato plants pre-treated with a mixture of beneficial bio-control agents (BCAs), as soil-drenches, were less sensitive to infection of the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita. To unravel the molecular mechanisms of this induced resistance against RKNs, we used qRT-PCR to monitor the expression, in tomato roots and leaves, of 6 key defense genes. Gene transcripts were detected until the 12th day after BCA treatment(3, 7, 8, 12 dpt) and3 and 7 days after nematode inoculation of pre-treated plants. Early after BCA treatment, the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent pathogenesis related gene (PR-gene), PR-1b, marker of the systemic acquired resistance (SAR), was systemically over-expressed. Another PR-gene, PR-5, was over-expressed at later stages of BCA-plant interaction, and only in roots. Activation of defense against RKNs was attested by the early up-regulation of 4 genes (PR-1, PR-3, PR-5, ACO) in pre-treated plants after inoculation. Conversely, the expression of the JA/ET-dependent gene JERF3 did not increase after nematode inoculation in primed plants. A catalase gene (CAT)was highly over-expressed by nematode infection, however, this over-expression was annulled at the earliest stages or limited at the later stages of infection toBCA-treated roots. Enzyme activities, such as glucanase and endochitinase, were enhanced in roots of pre-treated inoculated plants with respect to plants left not inoculated as a control. These findings indicate that BCA interaction with roots primes plants against RKNs. BCA-mediated immunity seems to rely on SA-mediated SAR and to be associated with both the activation of chitinase and glucanase enzyme activities and the inhibition of the plant antioxidant enzyme system. Immunity is triggered at the penetration and movements inside the roots of the invading nematode juveniles but probably acts at the feeding site building stage of nematode infection.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
The normal lack of the ability to produce an immunological response to autologous (self) antigens. A breakdown of self tolerance leads to autoimmune diseases. The ability to recognize the difference between self and non-self is the prime function of the immune system.
The theory that infectious agents, symbiotic microorganisms, and parasites are normal stimulants for the maturation of the immune system toward a balanced immune response. The theory predicts that lack of such stimulation leads to allergies and AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
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Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) uses the ability of DNA polymerase (enzymes that create DNA molecules by assembling nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. These enzymes are essential to DNA replication and usually work in pairs to create two ident...