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If pathogen species, strains, or clones do not interact, intuition suggests the proportion of coinfected hosts should be the product of the individual prevalences. Independence consequently underpins the wide range of methods for detecting pathogen interactions from cross-sectional survey data. However, the very simplest of epidemiological models challenge the underlying assumption of statistical independence. Even if pathogens do not interact, death of coinfected hosts causes net prevalences of individual pathogens to decrease simultaneously. The induced positive correlation between prevalences means the proportion of coinfected hosts is expected to be higher than multiplication would suggest. By modelling the dynamics of multiple noninteracting pathogens causing chronic infections, we develop a pair of novel tests of interaction that properly account for nonindependence between pathogens causing lifelong infection. Our tests allow us to reinterpret data from previous studies including pathogens of humans, plants, and animals. Our work demonstrates how methods to identify interactions between pathogens can be updated using simple epidemic models.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PLoS biology
To analyse factors associated with genital human papillomavirus (HPV) and other self-reported sexually transmitted infection (STI) coinfections among women and men aged 16-25 years from Brazil.
Vector-borne pathogens are a significant public health concern worldwide. Infections with these pathogens, some of which are emerging, are likely under-recognized due to the lack of widely-available l...
The present study was carried out to determine the reference ranges of 43 frequently used blood tests in daily practice for physically independent patients of advanced age.
Periodontitis is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory infectious disease that compromises the integrity of tooth-supporting tissues. The disease progression depends on the disruption of host-microbe ...
The eukaryotic plasma membrane (PM) consists largely of phospholipids and proteins, and separates the intracellular compartments from the extracellular space. It also serves as a signaling platform fo...
Airborne transmission represents one of the most rapidly spreading and dangerous dissemination mechanisms for pathogens. Public health strategies to prevent and control the often explosive...
A point-of-care laboratory (POC) was set at North Hospital, Marseille, France for the diagnosis in less than two hours of diarrhoea caused by known pathogens, close to the reception of Eme...
A point-of-care laboratory (POC) was set at North Hospital, Marseille, France for the diagnosis in less than two hours of tonsillitis caused by known pathogens, close to the reception of E...
The Chronic Kidney Disease Engagement System is currently in place for 1700 adults receiving care from Empire Physicians Medical Group (EPMG), an Independent Practice Association located i...
Hypervirulent and multidrug-resistant infections are associated with significant health care costs, substantial morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the rapid recognition of outbreaks and t...
A subcategory of structurally-related phospholipases A2 that do not require calcium for activity.
Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
Facilities designed to serve patients who require surgical treatment exceeding the capabilities of usual physician's office yet not of such proportion as to require hospitalization.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...