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Radiogenomics, defined as the integrated analysis of radiologic imaging and genetic data, is a well-established tool shown to augment neuroimaging in the clinical diagnosis, prognostication, and scientific study of late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD). Early work using candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified genetic variation in APOE, BIN1, CLU, and CR1 as key modifiers of brain structure and function using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). More recently, polygenic risk scores used in conjunction with MRI and positron emission tomography have shown great promise as a risk-stratification tool for clinical trials and care-management decisions. In addition, recent work using multimodal MRI and positron emission tomography as proxies of LOAD progression has identified novel risk variants that are enhancing our understanding of LOAD pathophysiology and progression. Herein, we highlight key studies and trends in the radiogenomics of LOAD over the past two decades and their implications for clinical practice and scientific research.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Topics in magnetic resonance imaging : TMRI
Alzheimer's disease is a progressive, irreversible neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of memory and cognitive skills. More than 90% of cases are sporadic and have later age of onset. Man...
There is considerable heterogeneity in clinical presentation among people with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). We have categorized people with LOAD into subgroups based on relative impairments ...
The ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene represents the most widely reproduced and robust susceptibility loci for the most common late onset and sporadic forms of Alzheimer's disease. While the dis...
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Pathogenic variants in the autosomal dominant genes PSEN1, PSEN2, or APP, APOE4 alleles, and rare variants within TREM2, SORL1, and ABCA7 contribute to early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD). However,...
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This study attempts to identify two types of AD by using clinical and cognitive tasks and brain imaging. The subtypes of AD are separated into a "typical" group (memory loss) and a "varian...
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The Longitudinal Early-onset Alzheimer's Disease Study (LEADS) is a non-randomized, natural history, non-treatment study designed to look at disease progression in individuals with early o...
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with no know cure. The pathogenesis of late onset AD (LOAD) is complex and multifactorial in nature, with multiple susceptibility g...
Pathological conditions (Disorder, SYNDROME, or DISEASE) whose SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS manifest late in the life of an individual.
Rheumatoid arthritis of children occurring in three major subtypes defined by the symptoms present during the first six months following onset: systemic-onset (Still's Disease, Juvenile-Onset), polyarticular-onset, and pauciarticular-onset. Adult-onset cases of Still's disease (STILL'S DISEASE, ADULT-ONSET) are also known. Only one subtype of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (polyarticular-onset, rheumatoid factor-positive) clinically resembles adult rheumatoid arthritis and is considered its childhood equivalent.
A group of recessively inherited diseases that feature progressive muscular atrophy and hypotonia. They are classified as type I (Werdnig-Hoffman disease), type II (intermediate form), and type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease). Type I is fatal in infancy, type II has a late infantile onset and is associated with survival into the second or third decade. Type III has its onset in childhood, and is slowly progressive. (J Med Genet 1996 Apr:33(4):281-3)
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe MENTAL RETARDATION. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
An allelic disorder of TYPE A NIEMANN-PICK DISEASE, a late-onset form. It is also caused by mutation in SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE but clinical signs involve only visceral organs (non-neuropathic type).
Psychiatry is the study of mental disorders and their diagnosis, management and prevention. Conditions include schizophrenia, severe depression and panic disorders among others. There are pharmaceutical treatments as well as other therapies to help...
Radiology is the branch of medicine that studies imaging of the body; X-ray (basic, angiography, barium swallows), ultrasound, MRI, CT and PET. These imaging techniques can be used to diagnose, but also to treat a range of conditions, by allowing visuali...