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Neurodegenerative disorders are a growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Onset is typically insidious and clinical symptoms of behavioral change, memory loss, or cognitive dysfunction may not be evident early in the disease process. Efforts have been made to discover biomarkers that allow for earlier diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders, to initiate treatment that may slow the course of clinical deterioration. Neuronal dysfunction occurs earlier than clinical symptoms manifest. Thus, assessment of neuronal function using functional brain imaging has been examined as a potential biomarker. While most early studies used task-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with the more recent technique of resting-state fMRI, "intrinsic" relationships between brain regions or brain networks have been studied in greater detail in neurodegenerative disorders. In Alzheimer's disease, the most common neurodegenerative disorder, and frontotemporal dementia, another of the common dementias, specific brain networks may be particularly susceptible to dysfunction. In this review, we highlight the major findings of functional connectivity assessed by resting state fMRI in Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Topics in magnetic resonance imaging : TMRI
Neuropathological diagnostic criteria of neurodegenerative disorders are based on the presence of specific inclusions in a specific area of brain tissue that correlate with clinical manifestations. Co...
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To determine the frequency and characteristics of clinical diagnostic change in frontotemporal dementia (FTD)-spectrum syndromes and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-type dementia.
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Heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy associated with neuronal loss, gliosis, and dementia. Patients exhibit progressive changes in social, behavioral, and/or language function. Multiple subtypes or forms are recognized based on presence or absence of TAU PROTEIN inclusions. FTLD includes three clinical syndromes: FRONTOTEMPORAL DEMENTIA, semantic dementia, and PRIMARY PROGRESSIVE NONFLUENT APHASIA.
Neurodegenerative disorders involving deposition of abnormal tau protein isoforms (TAU PROTEINS) in neurons and glial cells in the brain. Pathological aggregations of tau proteins are associated with mutation of the tau gene on chromosome 17 in patients with ALZHEIMER DISEASE; DEMENTIA; PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS; progressive supranuclear palsy (SUPRANUCLEAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE); and corticobasal degeneration.
The most common clinical form of FRONTOTEMPORAL LOBAR DEGENERATION, this dementia presents with personality and behavioral changes often associated with disinhibition, apathy, and lack of insight.
A neurodegenerative disease characterized by dementia, mild parkinsonism, and fluctuations in attention and alertness. The neuropsychiatric manifestations tend to precede the onset of bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY, and other extrapyramidal signs. DELUSIONS and visual HALLUCINATIONS are relatively frequent in this condition. Histologic examination reveals LEWY BODIES in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and BRAIN STEM. SENILE PLAQUES and other pathologic features characteristic of ALZHEIMER DISEASE may also be present. (From Neurology 1997;48:376-380; Neurology 1996;47:1113-1124)
Impaired ambulation not attributed to sensory impairment or motor weakness. FRONTAL LOBE disorders; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES (e.g., PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS); DEMENTIA, MULTI-INFARCT; ALZHEIMER DISEASE; and other conditions may be associated with gait apraxia.
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
Alzheimer's Disease Anesthesia Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorders Dementia Epilepsy Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Neurology Pain Parkinson's Disease Sleep Disorders Neurology is the branch of me...
Of all the types of Dementia, Alzheimer's disease is the most common, affecting around 465,000 people in the UK. Neurons in the brain die, becuase 'plaques' and 'tangles' (mis-folded proteins) form in the brain. People with Al...