Are There Gender-based Differences in Language in Letters of Recommendation to an Orthopaedic Surgery Residency Program?

07:00 EST 13th November 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Are There Gender-based Differences in Language in Letters of Recommendation to an Orthopaedic Surgery Residency Program?"

Letters of recommendation are considered one of the most important factors for whether an applicant is selected for an interview for orthopaedic surgery residency programs. Language differences in letters describing men versus women candidates may create differential perceptions by gender. Given the gender imbalance in orthopaedic surgery, we sought to determine whether there are differences in the language of letters of recommendation by applicant gender.


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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Clinical orthopaedics and related research
ISSN: 1528-1132


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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Prejudice or discrimination based on gender or behavior or attitudes that foster stereotyped social roles based on gender.

Violence based on gender that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or mental harm or suffering, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life. (From

A person's concept of self as being male and masculine or female and feminine, or ambivalent, based in part on physical characteristics, parental responses, and psychological and social pressures. It is the internal experience of gender role.

A marked difference between the individual’s expressed/experienced gender and the gender others would assign him or her, and it must continue for at least six months. (from DSM-5)

Individuals including lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, gender non-conforming people, and other populations whose sexual orientation or GENDER IDENTITY and reproductive development is considered outside cultural, societal, or physiological norms.

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