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Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune neuromuscular disease that causes fluctuating weakness in ocular, bulbar, and limb muscles and can, in 15% of cases, cause myasthenic crisis, a neurologic emergency characterized by respiratory failure. Although infrequent, MG needs to be promptly recognized and treated because the potential for improvement and remission is very high. The diagnosis of MG can be challenging and delayed because of the fluctuating nature of muscle weakness and the overlap of signs and symptoms with other neuromuscular diseases.This article reviews the importance of prompt recognition of the typical signs and symptoms, best tests to confirm the diagnosis, currently available acute and chronic treatment modalities, the role of thymectomy, and the natural history of the disease. Special consideration related to the diagnosis and management in women during pregnancy and in children will also be reviewed. This article also includes an overview of congenital myasthenic syndromes.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Continuum (Minneapolis, Minn.)
This article reviews the pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) and of botulism, and immune-related myasthenia gravi...
In myasthenia gravis autoantibodies target components of the neuromuscular junction causing variable degrees of weakness. In most cases, autoantibodies trigger complement-mediated endplate damage and ...
Myasthenic crisis (MC) is a life-threatening condition usually occurred in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG).
Thymoma is a rare epithelial tumor arising from the thymus in the anterior mediastinum. Nearly 50% of patients with thymoma develop myasthenia gravis, which is an indication of a poor long-term progno...
Juvenile myasthenia gravis is a rare autoimmune disease, which has made it difficult to collect data from prospective randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy and results of different tre...
Upper respiratory infection , including influenza, may exacerbate the symptoms of myasthenia gravis (MG), which is an autoimmune disease that causes muscle weakness and, in some cases, can...
Generalized fatigue in myasthenia gravis results in physical deconditioning that reduces fitness and increases risk of obesity, hypertension, elevated cholesterol and type 2 diabetes. Thi...
The study is being done with patients with Myasthenia Gravis (MG), age 18-80 years, positive acetylcholine receptor antibody, receiving greater than 30mg of prednisone daily. Patients may...
The purpose of the current study is to assess safety/tolerability and key pharmacodynamic (PD) effects that are considered to be associated with clinical benefit (reduction of total IgG an...
Congenital myasthenia and LEMS are potentially lethal disorder, which, even with careful management, significantly impedes participation in normal daily functions. Currently approved thera...
A disorder of neuromuscular transmission that occurs in a minority of newborns born to women with myasthenia gravis. Clinical features are usually present at birth or develop in the first 3 days of life and consist of hypotonia and impaired respiratory, suck, and swallowing abilities. This condition is associated with the passive transfer of acetylcholine receptor antibodies through the placenta. In the majority of infants the myasthenic weakness resolves (i.e., transient neonatal myasthenia gravis) although this disorder may rarely continue beyond the neonatal period (i.e., persistent neonatal myasthenia gravis). (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p823; Neurology 1997 Jan;48(1):50-4)
Any autoimmune animal disease model used in the study of MYASTHENIA GRAVIS. Injection with purified neuromuscular junction acetylcholine receptor (AChR) (see RECEPTORS, CHOLINERGIC) components results in a myasthenic syndrome that has acute and chronic phases. The motor endplate pathology, loss of acetylcholine receptors, presence of circulating anti-AChR antibodies, and electrophysiologic changes make this condition virtually identical to human myasthenia gravis. Passive transfer of AChR antibodies or lymphocytes from afflicted animals to normals induces passive transfer experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch 54, p3)
Experimental animal models for human AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME (see NEURITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); MYASTHENIA GRAVIS (see MYASTHENIA GRAVIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); and MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (see ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL).
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by a congenital defect in neuromuscular transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. This includes presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic disorders (that are not of autoimmune origin). The majority of these diseases are caused by mutations of various subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) on the postsynaptic surface of the junction. (From Arch Neurol 1999 Feb;56(2):163-7)
A rapid-onset, short-acting cholinesterase inhibitor used in cardiac arrhythmias and in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. It has also been used as an antidote to curare principles.
Congenital conditions are those which are present from birth. They include structural deformities or loss of function in organs such as the <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->heart, gut or skeletal system. They can be corrected by <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->surgery, m...
Autoimmune disorders are conditions that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue. There are more than 80 different types of autoimmune disorders. Normally the immune system's white blood cells help protect ...
Asthma COPD Cystic Fibrosis Pneumonia Pulmonary Medicine Respiratory Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are any infection of the sinuses, throat, airways or lungs. They're usually caused by viruses, but they can also ...