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Influenza is a highly contagious viral pathogen with more than 200,000 cases reported in the U.S. during the 2017-2018 season. Annual vaccination is recommended by the World Health Organization with the goal to reduce influenza severity and transmission. Currently available vaccines are ~60% effective and vaccine effectiveness varies from season to season, as well as between different influenza subtypes within a single season. Immunological imprinting from early life influenza infection can prominently shape the immune response to subsequent infections. Here, the impact of pre-existing B cell memory in the response to quadrivalent influenza vaccine was assessed using blood samples collected from healthy subjects (18 to 85 years old) prior to and 21-28 days following influenza vaccination. Influenza vaccination increased both HA-specific antibodies and memory B cells frequency. Despite no apparent differences in antigenicity between vaccine components, most individuals were biased towards one of the vaccine strains. Specifically, responses to H3N2 were reduced in magnitude relative to the other vaccine components. Overall, this study unveils a new mechanism underlying differential vaccine effectiveness against distinct influenza subtypes.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: JCI insight
When tracking the progression of neuropsychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases, assessment tools that enable repeated measures of cognition and require little examiner burden are increasingly importa...
Neutralising antibodies (NAb) play a key role in clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV). NAbs have been isolated and mapped to several domains on the HCV Envelope proteins. However, the immunodominance ...
The determinants of protective CD8+ memory T cell (CD8+TM) immunity remain incompletely defined and may in fact constitute an evolving agency as aging CD8+TM progressively acquire enhanced rather than...
In mice, memory B (B) cells can be divided into two subpopulations: CD80 B cells that preferentially differentiate into plasma cells and CD80 B cells that become germinal center (GC) B cells during a ...
Upon recognition of peptide-MHC complexes by T cell receptors (TCR), the cognate T cells expand and differentiate into effector T cells to generate protective immunity. Despite the fact that any immun...
Determining how memory T helper type 2 (Th2) initiate recall responses to aeroallergens has the potential to change the therapeutic approach to allergic asthma, the most common asthma subt...
The goal of this study is to determine the effects of dexmedetomidine on memory and recall of children who are receiving dexmedetomidine sedation administered for magnetic resonance imagin...
Research shows that there are a plenitude of interventions that can be used to enhance memory for older adults; however, the evidence as to whether these interventions enhance memory for d...
This study is designed to identify brain activity associated with good memory in subjects with a chronically implanted RNS® device and to study the effects of therapeutic stimulation for ...
The present research project investigates if recall of recent eating episodes enhances consumption of fruits and vegetables
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
Type of declarative memory, consisting of personal memory in contrast to general knowledge.
Loss of the ability to recall information that had been previously encoded in memory prior to a specified or approximate point in time. This process may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organic forms may be associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; and a wide variety of other conditions that impair cerebral function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-9)
A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor that has a high affinity for the drug PIRENZEPINE. It is found in the peripheral GANGLIA where it signals a variety of physiological functions such as GASTRIC ACID secretion and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION. This subtype of muscarinic receptor is also found in neuronal tissues including the CEREBRAL CORTEX and HIPPOCAMPUS where it mediates the process of MEMORY and LEARNING.
Swine Flu - H1N1 influenza - H7N9
Swine flu is the common name given to a relatively new strain of influenza (flu) that caused a flu pandemic in 2009-2010. It is also referred to as H1N1 influenza (because it is the H1N1 strain of virus). The H1N1 flu virus will be one of the main vi...
A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one ...