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Text entry aims to provide an effective and efficient pathway for humans to deliver their messages to computers. With the advent of mobile computing, the recent focus of text-entry research has moved from physical keyboards to soft keyboards. Current soft keyboards, however, increase the typo rate due to a lack of tactile feedback and degrade the usability of mobile devices due to their large portion on screens. To tackle these limitations, we propose a fully imaginary keyboard (I-Keyboard) with a deep neural decoder (DND). The invisibility of I-Keyboard maximizes the usability of mobile devices and DND empowered by a deep neural architecture allows users to start typing from any position on the touch screens at any angle. To the best of our knowledge, the eyes-free ten-finger typing scenario of I-Keyboard which does not necessitate both a calibration step and a predefined region for typing is first explored in this article. For the purpose of training DND, we collected the largest user data in the process of developing I-Keyboard. We verified the performance of the proposed I-Keyboard and DND by conducting a series of comprehensive simulations and experiments under various conditions. I-Keyboard showed 18.95% and 4.06% increases in typing speed (45.57 words per minute) and accuracy (95.84%), respectively, over the baseline.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: IEEE transactions on cybernetics
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