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Infections with parasites, especially those involving nematodes that invade tissues, induce a strong Th2-type immune response, which increases immunoglobulin E and eosinophil levels in the blood and tissues. Eosinophils are not effective against all possible helminth infections, but are known to be effective against nematode larvae. In particular, when a host is re-infected by a species of nematode that it previously encountered, the activation of acquired immunity causes robust accumulation and activation of eosinophils that damages the nematode larvae. Eosinophil production and activation processes are mainly induced by interleukin (IL)-5, which is produced by Th2 cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells, and eosinophils have been shown to generally participate in host defense, inflammation, and immunomodulation. Recently, several papers have reported host defense by non-antigen-specific immune activation, in which group 2 innate lymphoid cells and Th2 cells produce interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 in response to IL-33 stimulation. This immune activation is produced by migrating larvae of a species that differs from the species previously encountered. Eosinophils also play an important role in the eradication of migrating larvae. Thus, eosinophils contribute to host defense in both antigen-specific and non-antigen-specific manners.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Immunological medicine
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Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.
Specialized clothing or equipment worn for protection against health hazards. Personal Protective Equipment may include MASKS; RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES; HEAD PROTECTIVE DEVICES; EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES; EAR PROTECTIVE DEVICES; PROTECTIVE CLOTHING; and protective footwear.
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.
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