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We studied how children begin to produce spellings that reflect the sounds in words. We asked 75 U.S. preschoolers (mean age = 4 years, 11 months) to participate in two sessions. In one session, the children were asked to spell words (e.g., ) that begin with a sequence of sounds that matches the name of a letter; in another session, they were asked to spell control words (e.g., ). The phonological plausibility of children's spellings, particularly their spellings of the words' first phonemes, was higher for letter-name words than for control words. When we categorized spelling performance in a session as if the child used phonologically appropriate letters no more often than would be expected by chance, we found that children were more likely to be prephonological spellers in the session with control words than in the session with letter-name words. Words with letter names can help children move from prephonological spellings to spellings that symbolize at least some of the sounds in words.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Psychological science
Invented spelling has been viewed as a window to young children's spelling development.
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Work consisting of written or printed communication between individuals or between persons and representatives of corporate bodies. The correspondence may be personal or professional. In medical and other scientific publications the letter is usually from one or more authors to the editor of the journal or book publishing the item being commented upon or discussed. LETTER is often accompanied by COMMENT.
Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)
A malignant solid tumor arising from mesenchymal tissues which normally differentiate to form striated muscle. It can occur in a wide variety of sites. It is divided into four distinct types: pleomorphic, predominantly in male adults; alveolar (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, ALVEOLAR), mainly in adolescents and young adults; embryonal (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, EMBRYONAL), predominantly in infants and children; and botryoidal, also in young children. It is one of the most frequently occurring soft tissue sarcomas and the most common in children under 15. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2186; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1647-9)
Personal names, given or surname, as cultural characteristics, as ethnological or religious patterns, as indications of the geographic distribution of families and inbreeding, etc. Analysis of isonymy, the quality of having the same or similar names, is useful in the study of population genetics. NAMES is used also for the history of names or name changes of corporate bodies, such as medical societies, universities, hospitals, government agencies, etc.
Work consisting of a critical or explanatory note written to discuss, support, or dispute an article or other presentation previously published. It may take the form of an article, letter, editorial, etc. It appears in publications under a variety of names: comment, commentary, editorial comment, viewpoint, etc.
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