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The human brain contains a vast number of cells and shows extraordinary cellular diversity to facilitate the many cognitive and automatic commands governing our bodily functions. This complexity arises partly from large-scale structural variations in the genome, evolutionary processes to increase brain size, function, and cognition. Not surprisingly given recent technical advances, low-grade gliomas (LGGs), which arise from the glia (the most abundant cell type in the brain), have undergone a recent revolution in their classification and therapy, especially in the pediatric setting. Next-generation sequencing has uncovered previously unappreciated diverse LGG entities, unraveling genetic subgroups and multiple molecular alterations and altered pathways, including many amenable to therapeutic targeting. In this article we review these novel entities, in which oncogenic processes show striking age-related neuroanatomical specificity (highlighting their close interplay with development); the opportunities they provide for targeted therapies, some of which are already practiced at the bedside; and the challenges of implementing molecular pathology in the clinic.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Annual review of genetics
Low-grade gliomas cause significant neurological morbidity by brain invasion. There is no universally accepted objective technique available for detection of enlargement of low-grade gliomas in the cl...
There are no standardized criteria to predict the prognosis of patients with low-grade gliomas. Therefore, novel prognostic biomarkers that can guide follow-up schedules and therapeutic approaches are...
T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been broadly utilized in the evaluation of brain tumors. We aimed at assessing the diagnostic accuracy of DCE...
Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) is an important extracellular glycoprotein that is associated with immune regulation, tumorigenesis, and cell signaling. However, the prognostic value of SPP1 in gliom...
Gliomas are brain tumours arising from glial cells with an annual incidence of 4 to 11 people per 100,000. In this review we focus on gliomas with low aggressive potential in the short term, i.e. low-...
To evaluate the efficacy of multi-modality magnetic resonance quantitative parameters in evaluating the treatment effects of high-grade gliomas, and to provide new biomarkers for the estab...
The purpose of this research study is to learn if the study drug RAD001 can shrink or slow the growth of low-grade gliomas in children with NF1. Additionally, the safety of RAD001 will be...
This study will evaluate the feasibility of combining two drugs, Tarceva (an anti-EGFR agent), and Rapamycin (an mTOR inhibitor), in children with progressive low-grade gliomas who have fa...
The management of lower-grade gliomas (Diffuse low-grade and intermediate-grade gliomas, WHO II and III) is largely based on surgery followed by radiotherapy. Recent studies showed that lo...
Glioma is the most common primary malignant brain tumour in adults and has an extremely poor prognosis. The aim of this study is to quantify the degree of early step fatty acid oxidation i...
A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)
Morphological abnormalities of the cervical EPITHELIUM, usually revealed in PAP SMEAR, which do not meet the criteria for squamous CERVICAL INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA or SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMAS of the CERVIX . It may be a sign of infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV).or sign of a benign (not cancer) growth, such as a cyst or polyp or, in menopausal women, of low hormone levels. More testing, such as HPV test, may be needed.
A malignant epithelial tumor of glandular tissue, especially the salivary glands, characterized by acini with mucus-producing cells and by the presence of malignant squamous elements. Most mucoepidermoid tumors are low-grade lesions readily cured by adequate excision. They may appear in any age group. They grow slowly. If high-grade, they behave aggressively, widely infiltrating the salivary gland and producing lymph node and distant metastases. (Dorland, 27th ed; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575)
A homolog of p53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN that encodes full-length trans-activating and N-terminally-truncated (DeltaN) isoforms. Detection of splice variants and isoforms in the nervous system (human TELENCEPHALON, CHOROID PLEXUS; CEREBROSPINAL FLUID), embryonic tissue, human BREAST CANCER; OVARIAN CANCER, suggest roles in cellular differentiation.
A premalignant change arising in the prostatic epithelium, regarded as the most important and most likely precursor of prostatic adenocarcinoma. The neoplasia takes the form of an intra-acinar or ductal proliferation of secretory cells with unequivocal nuclear anaplasia, which corresponds to nuclear grade 2 and 3 invasive prostate cancer.
Bladder Cancer Brain Cancer Breast Cancer Cancer Cervical Cancer Colorectal Head & Neck Cancers Hodgkin Lymphoma Leukemia Lung Cancer Melanoma Myeloma Ovarian Cancer Pancreatic Cancer ...
According to the American Brain Tumor Association, just over 24,000 patients will be diagnosed with a primary malignant brain tumour during 2012 in the US alone. Some 80% of primary malignant brain tumours are gliomas, a broad term which includes all tum...