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RNA Splicing by the Spliceosome.

07:00 EST 3rd December 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "RNA Splicing by the Spliceosome."

The spliceosome removes introns from messenger RNA precursors (pre-mRNA). Decades of biochemistry and genetics combined with recent structural studies of the spliceosome have produced a detailed view of the mechanism of splicing. In this review, we aim to make this mechanism understandable and provide several videos of the spliceosome in action to illustrate the intricate choreography of splicing. The U1 and U2 small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) mark an intron and recruit the U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP. Transfer of the 5' splice site (5'SS) from U1 to U6 snRNA triggers unwinding of U6 snRNA from U4 snRNA. U6 folds with U2 snRNA into an RNA-based active site that positions the 5'SS at two catalytic metal ions. The branch point (BP) adenosine attacks the 5'SS, producing a free 5' exon. Removal of the BP adenosine from the active site allows the 3'SS to bind, so that the 5' exon attacks the 3'SS to produce mature mRNA and an excised lariat intron. Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 89 is June 22, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

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Name: Annual review of biochemistry
ISSN: 1545-4509
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Organelles in which the splicing and excision reactions that remove introns from precursor messenger RNA molecules occur. One component of a spliceosome is five small nuclear RNA molecules (U1, U2, U4, U5, U6) that, working in conjunction with proteins, help to fold pieces of RNA into the right shapes and later splice them into the message.

An RNA splicing factor that performs a critical function in both constitutive and enhancer-dependent RNA SPLICING. It recruits RIBONUCLEOPROTEIN, U2 SMALL NUCLEAR to the splice site and mediates interactions between it, the RNA molecule, and other splicing factors for accurate 3'-splice site selection.

An RNA splicing factor that also binds DNA. It is essential for pre-mRNA spicing in the formation of early SPLICEOSOMES and catalytic step II. It binds specifically to polypyrimidine tracts in INTRONS and is involved in the regulation of ALTERNATIVE SPLICING by SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.

The joining of RNA from two different genes. One type of trans-splicing is the "spliced leader" type (primarily found in protozoans such as trypanosomes and in lower invertebrates such as nematodes) which results in the addition of a capped, noncoding, spliced leader sequence to the 5' end of mRNAs. Another type of trans-splicing is the "discontinuous group II introns" type (found in plant/algal chloroplasts and plant mitochondria) which results in the joining of two independently transcribed coding sequences. Both are mechanistically similar to conventional nuclear pre-mRNA cis-splicing. Mammalian cells are also capable of trans-splicing.

RNA-binding proteins that facilitate or inhibit RNA SPLICING.

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