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In this study, the scalability of the supported membrane solvent extraction (MSX) process for the recovery of rare earth elements (REEs) from scrap permanent magnets was demonstrated by processing larger quantities of different scrap magnet feedstocks with a membrane area of more than 1 m2. The MSX process was successfully employed to recover high purity REEs in their oxide form (REOs) from a wide range of end-of-life magnet feedstocks including hard disk drives (HDDs), MRI, cell phone, bonded, swarf, and hybrid car magnets. REEs with purity of more than 99.5 wt.%, recovery of more than 95% and an extraction rate of as high as 9.3 g/h/m2 were recovered from feed solutions containing REEs of up to 46,000 mg/L. It was found that the extraction rate strongly depends on the initial REE concentration in the feed solution and to some extent on the composition of the scrap magnet source. The results demonstrated that MSX is a scalable and versatile process for recovery of REEs from a wide range of electronic wastes.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental science & technology
The recent research and development on mine drainage published in 2018 was summarized in this annual review. In particular, this review was focused on two main aspects of mine drainage: 1) advances in...
Surface nanobubbles have been identified to play an important role in a range of industries from mineral processing to food science. The formation of surface nanobubbles is of importance for mineral p...
Ultrathin 2D nanomaterials possess promising properties due to electron confinement within single or a few atom layers. As an emerging class of functional materials, ultrathin 2D rare-earth nanomateri...
Rare earth elements (REEs) are strategically important for national security and advanced technologies. Consequently, significant effort has been devoted towards increasing REE domestic production, in...
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A group of elements that include SCANDIUM; YTTRIUM; and the LANTHANOID SERIES ELEMENTS. Historically, the rare earth metals got their name from the fact that they were never found in their pure elemental form, but as an oxide. In addition they were very difficult to purify. They are not truly rare and comprise about 25% of the metals in the earth's crust.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Y, atomic number 39, and atomic weight 88.91. In conjunction with other rare earths, yttrium is used as a phosphor in television receivers and is a component of the yttrium-aluminum garnet (YAG) lasers.
Lasers which use a solid, as opposed to a liquid or gas, as the lasing medium. Common materials used are crystals, such as YAG (YTTRIUM aluminum garnet); alexandrite; and CORUNDUM, doped with a rare earth element such as a NEODYMIUM; ERBIUM; or HOLMIUM. The output is sometimes additionally modified by addition of non-linear optical materials such as potassium titanyl phosphate crystal, which for example is used with neodymium YAG lasers to convert the output light to the visible range.
Radiology is the branch of medicine that studies imaging of the body; X-ray (basic, angiography, barium swallows), ultrasound, MRI, CT and PET. These imaging techniques can be used to diagnose, but also to treat a range of conditions, by allowing visuali...