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Status epilepticus-induced hippocampal neuronal death, astrogliosis, and the activation of microglia are common pathological changes in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) with resistance to antiepileptic drugs. Neuronal death in mTLE gradually progresses and is involved in the aggravation of epilepsy and the impairment of hippocampus-dependent memory. Thus, clarifying the cellular mechanisms by which neurons are protected in mTLE will significantly contribute to the treatment of epilepsy. Here, mainly using hippocampal slice cultures with or without the pharmacological depletion of microglia, we directly examined whether microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain that can act either neurotoxically or in a neuroprotective manner, accelerate or attenuate kainic acid (KA)-induced neuronal death in vitro.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Neuropsychopharmacology reports
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Cushing's disease is a state of chronic endogenous glucocorticoid excess. Cushing's disease is responsible for increased morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have pinpointed the frequen...
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Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and directly gate ion channels. Kainic acid receptors were originally discriminated from other glutamate receptors by their affinity for the agonist kainic acid. Activation of kainic acid receptors is generally excitatory to cells. Subtypes have been cloned, and for some the traditional distinction from AMPA receptors may not apply.
A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.
Epilepsy is defined as a disorder of brain function characterized by recurrent seizures that have a sudden onset. (Oxford Medical Dictionary). A seizure is caused by a sudden burst of excess electrical activity in the brain, causing a tempora...
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
Alzheimer's Disease Anesthesia Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorders Dementia Epilepsy Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Neurology Pain Parkinson's Disease Sleep Disorders Neurology is the branch of me...