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Passive targeting of large nanoparticles by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect is a crucial concept for solid tumor targeting in cancer nanomedicine. There is, however, a trade-off between the long-term blood circulation of nanoparticles and their nonspecific background tissue uptake. To define this size-dependent EPR effect, near-infrared fluorophore-conjugated polyethylene glycols (PEG-ZW800s; 1-60 kDa) are designed and their biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and renal clearance are evaluated in tumor-bearing mice. The targeting efficiency of size-variant PEG-ZW800s is investigated in terms of tumor-to-background ratio (TBR). Interestingly, smaller sized PEGs (≤20 kDa, 12 nm) exhibit significant tumor targeting with minimum to no nonspecific uptakes, while larger sized PEGs (>20 kDa, 13 nm) accumulate highly in major organs, including the lungs, liver, and pancreas. Among those tested, 20 kDa PEG-ZW800 exhibits the highest TBR, while excreting unbound molecules to the urinary bladder. This result lays a foundation for engineering tumor-targeted nanoparticles and therapeutics based on the size-dependent EPR effect.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Advanced healthcare materials
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Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
A gene product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It antagonizes the function of MDM2 PROTEIN (which regulates P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN by targeting it for degradation). p14ARF is produced from the beta mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced alpha transcript, is CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
A layer of protein coating adsorbed by NANOPARTICLES upon entry into PLASMA or other protein-containing biological fluids, which affects how nanoparticles are internalized by cells and cleared from the body.
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