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Natural biopolymer nanoparticles (NPs), including nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC) and lignin, have shown potential as scaffolds for targeted drug delivery systems due to their wide availability, cost-efficient preparation, and anticipated biocompatibility. Since both CNC and lignin can potentially cause complications in cell viability assays due to their ability to scatter the emitted light and absorb the assay reagents, we investigated the response of bioluminescent (CellTiter-Glo®), colorimetric (MTT® and AlamarBlue®) and fluorometric (LIVE/DEAD®) assays for the determination of the biocompatibility of the multimodal CNC and lignin constructs in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages and 4T1 breast adenocarcinoma cell lines. Here, we have developed multimodal CNC and lignin NPs harboring the radiometal chelator DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) and the fluorescent dye Cyanine 5 for the investigation of nanomaterial biodistribution in vivo with nuclear and optical imaging, which were then used as the model CNC and lignin nanosystems in the cell viability assay comparison. CellTiter-Glo® based on the detection of ATP-dependent luminescence in viable cells revealed to be the best assay for both nanoconstructs for its robust linear response to increasing NP concentration and lack of interference from either of the NP types. Both multimodal CNC and lignin NPs displayed low cytotoxicity and favorable interactions with the cell lines, suggesting that they are good candidates for nanosystem development for targeted drug delivery in breast cancer and for theranostic applications. Our results provide useful guidance for cell viability assay compatibility for CNC and lignin NPs and facilitate the future translation of the materials for in vivo applications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A
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The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An order of fungi in the phylum BASIDIOMYCOTA having macroscopic basidiocarps. The members are characterized by their saprophytic activities as decomposers, particularly in the degradation of CELLULOSE and LIGNIN. A large number of species in the order have been used medicinally. (From Alexopoulos, Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp504-68)
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.
Studies using excised tissues.
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