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Coproporphyrin ferrochelatases (CpfCs, EC 220.127.116.11) insert ferrous iron into coproporphyrin III yielding coproheme. CpfCs are utilized by prokaryotic, mainly monoderm (Gram-positive) bacteria within the recently detected coproporphyrin-dependent heme biosynthesis pathway. Here we present a comprehensive study on CpfC from Listeria monocytogenes (LmCpfC) including the first crystal structure of a coproheme-bound CpfC. Comparison of crystal structures of apo-LmCpfC and coproheme-LmCpfC allowed identification of structural rearrangements and of amino acids involved in tetrapyrrole macrocycle and Fe binding. Differential scanning calorimetry of apo-, coproporphyrin III- and coproheme-LmCpfC underline the pronounced non-covalent interaction of both coproporphyrin and coproheme with the protein (ΔT = 11 °C compared to apo-LmCpfC) which includes the propionates (p2, p4, p6, p7) and the amino acids Arg29, Arg45, Tyr46, Ser53 and Tyr124. Furthermore, the thermodynamics and kinetics of coproporphyrin III and coproheme binding to apo-LmCpfC is presented as well as the kinetics of insertion of ferrous iron into coproporphyrin III-LmCpfC that immediately leads to formation of ferric coproheme-LmCpfC (k /K = 4.7 × 10 M s ). We compare the crystal structure of coproheme-LmCpfC with available structures of CpfCs with artificial tetrapyrrole macrocycles and discuss our data on substrate binding, iron insertion and substrate release in the context of the coproporphyrin-dependent heme biosynthesis pathway.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The FEBS journal
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Patterns (real or mathematical) which look similar at different scales, for example the network of airways in the lung which shows similar branching patterns at progressively higher magnifications. Natural fractals are self-similar across a finite range of scales while mathematical fractals are the same across an infinite range. Many natural, including biological, structures are fractal (or fractal-like). Fractals are related to "chaos" (see NONLINEAR DYNAMICS) in that chaotic processes can produce fractal structures in nature, and appropriate representations of chaotic processes usually reveal self-similarity over time.
Catalytically active enzymes that are formed by the combination of an apoenzyme (APOENZYMES) and its appropriate cofactors and prosthetic groups.
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