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Interest in the placebo effect of medicines has developed from the use of placebo treatments as controls in clinical trials into a whole new area of research around how placebos fit into a psychosocial model of therapeutics. The large placebo effect associated with cough medicines is both a problem and an opportunity for researchers: a problem for clinical trials on new actives as the active must beat the large placebo effect, and an opportunity for harnessing the placebo effect to produce effective cough medicines without any pharmacologically active ingredient. This review discusses the mechanisms associated with the placebo effect of cough medicines and distinguishes between a 'perceived placebo effect' and a true 'placebo effect'. The efficacy of sweeteners in cough syrups is discussed as well as viscosity, mucoadhesion, and flavoring. The complexity of modern cough medicines is demonstrated by an example of a medicine which contains one active ingredient, and eighteen excipients which provide a complex and intense sensory experience to enhance the placebo effect and complement the pharmacological activity of the medicine.
This article was published in the following journal.
One of the most important reasons for failure of placebo-controlled randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) is the lack of appropriate methodologies for detecting treatment effect (TE = differenc...
: Knowledge of the pathophysiology of cough has continued to advance over recent decades. Anatomic-diagnostic protocols were the first breakthrough leading to the improvement of outcomes in patients w...
Genetic variation may differentially modify drug and placebo treatment effects in randomized trials (RCTs). In asthma, although lung function and asthma control improvements are commonplace with place...
In randomized clinical trials, researchers are often interested in identifying an inexpensive intermediate study endpoint (typically a biomarker) that is a strong effect modifier of the treatment effe...
A better understanding of placebo responses and the specific factors influencing these outcomes is important for clinical trial design. We investigated the magnitude of placebo responses at 3 months ...
This is a double-blind, randomized, 2 period, crossover study in up to 36 healthy and chronic cough subjects.
Cough is a life saving reflex, therefore it is important, especially in pediatrics, to calm cough spells without sedating the reflex. The intent of this study is to use a protective syrup ...
The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of XEN-D0501 over placebo in reducing the daytime cough frequency in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)....
The intent of this study is to see how boys and girls aged 1-5 and coughing since 1-2 days due to common cold respond to a specific protective cough syrup taken before going to bed for one...
The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of a single dose of gefapixant 100 mg on cough reflex sensitivity to various challenge agents (capsaicin, citric acid, adenosin...
Works about a study where participants are assigned to a treatment, procedure, or intervention by methods that are not random. Non-randomized clinical trials are sometimes referred to as quasi-experimental clinical trials or non-equivalent control group designs.
An effect usually, but not necessarily, beneficial that is attributable to an expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.
Clinical trials involving one or more test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicines, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trials are characterized as RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC.
Works about randomized clinical trials that compare interventions in clinical settings and which look at a range of effectiveness outcomes and impacts.
Clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Clinical trials are a set of procedures in medical research conducted to allow safety (or more specifically, information about adverse drug reactions and adverse effects of other treatments) and efficacy data to be collected for health interventions (e.g...