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Plants have evolved multiple defense strategies to cope with pathogens, among which plant immune signaling that relies on cell-surface localized and intracellular receptors takes fundamental roles. Exciting breakthroughs were made recently on the signaling mechanisms of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and intracellular nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain receptors (NLRs). This review summarizes current view of PRRs activation, emphasizing the most recent discoveries about PRRs' dynamic regulation and signaling mechanisms directly leading to downstream molecular events including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and calcium (Ca ) burst. Plants also have evolved intracellular NLRs to perceive the presence of specific pathogen effectors and trigger more robust immune responses. We also discuss current understanding of the mechanisms of NLR activation, which has been greatly advanced by recent breakthroughs including structures of the first full-length plant NLR complex, findings of NLR sensor-helper pairs and novel biochemical activity of Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of integrative plant biology
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