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Both environmental and genetic factors are involved in the initiation and development of gastrointestinal cancer. Covalent closed circular RNAs (circRNAs) are produced by a mechanism called "back-splicing" from mRNAs. They are highly stable and show cell and tissue specific expression patterns. Although some functions such as "microRNA sponge" and "RNA binding protein sponge" have been reported for a small number of circRNAs, the function of thousands of other circRNAs is still unknown. Dysregulation of circRNAs has been reported in many GI cancers and are involved in metastasis and invasion. CircRNAs have been reported to be useful as prognostic markers and targets for developing new treatments. We first describe the properties and biogenesis of circRNAs. We then summarize recent reports about circRNA functions, expression status, and their potential to be used as biomarkers in GI cancers including, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, esophageal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallbladder cancer and pancreatic cancer.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a large class of non-coding RNAs with covalently closed-loop structures, are abundant, stable, conserved, and have tissue and developmental-stage specificities. The biologica...
Circular RNAs, a group of endogenous non-coding RNAs, are characterized by covalently closed cyclic structures with no poly-adenylated tails. It has been recently recommended that cirRNAs have an esse...
Altered epigenetics is central to oncogenesis in many pediatric cancers. Aberrant epigenetic states are induced by mutations in histones or epigenetic regulatory genes, aberrant expression of genes re...
Non-coding RNAs are known to participate in cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis by regulating the status of chromatin epigenetics and gene expression. Although these non-coding RNAs do not ...
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are RNA transcripts that belong to non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), whose implication in human cancers has been recently demonstrated. However, the specific role of multiple circRNAs...
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A multicenter phase II non-randomised trial assessing the efficacy of domatinostat (4SC-202) plus avelumab in patients with GI cancer
This trial aims to assess safety and efficacy of three-row circular staplers compared to two-row surgical stapllers in short-term and long-term perspective in patients with rectal cancer u...
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
The removal of a circular disk of the cranium. It is performed with a trephine, a small circular saw with a center pin mounted on a hollow metal shaft to which is attached a transverse handle. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The development and maintenance of an organism is orchestrated by a set of chemical reactions that switch parts of the genome off and on at strategic times and locations. Epigenetics is the study of these reactions and the factors that influence them. ...
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