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Circular RNAs and gastrointestinal cancers: Epigenetic regulators with a prognostic and therapeutic role.

07:00 EST 20th December 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Circular RNAs and gastrointestinal cancers: Epigenetic regulators with a prognostic and therapeutic role."

Both environmental and genetic factors are involved in the initiation and development of gastrointestinal cancer. Covalent closed circular RNAs (circRNAs) are produced by a mechanism called "back-splicing" from mRNAs. They are highly stable and show cell and tissue specific expression patterns. Although some functions such as "microRNA sponge" and "RNA binding protein sponge" have been reported for a small number of circRNAs, the function of thousands of other circRNAs is still unknown. Dysregulation of circRNAs has been reported in many GI cancers and are involved in metastasis and invasion. CircRNAs have been reported to be useful as prognostic markers and targets for developing new treatments. We first describe the properties and biogenesis of circRNAs. We then summarize recent reports about circRNA functions, expression status, and their potential to be used as biomarkers in GI cancers including, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, esophageal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallbladder cancer and pancreatic cancer.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
ISSN: 1879-0461
Pages: 102854

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.

RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.

The removal of a circular disk of the cranium. It is performed with a trephine, a small circular saw with a center pin mounted on a hollow metal shaft to which is attached a transverse handle. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.

Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

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