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Recent discovery of reversible N-methyladenosine (mA) methylation on messenger RNA (mRNA) and mapping of mA methylomes in mammals, plant and yeast revealed potential regulatory functions of this RNA modification. However, the role of the mA methylomes in amphibious is still poorly understood. Here, we examined the mA transcriptome-wide profile in testis tissues of Xenopus laevis (X. laevis) with and without treatment with 100 μg/L atrazine (AZ) through mA sequencing analysis using the latest Illumina HiSeq sequencer. The results revealed that mA is a highly conserved modification of mRNA in X. laevis. Distinct from that in mammals, mA in X. laevisis enriched around the stop codon and start codon, as is reported in plant. We then investigated the differential expression mA in testes of AZ-exposed X. laevis and compared that with the X. laevis in the control group by mA sequencing. The results indicated that AZ leads to altered expression profile in 1380 mA modification sites (696 upregulated and 684 downregulated). KEGG pathway analysis indicates that the "NOD-like receptors", "tight junction", "Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors", "adherens junctions", "Glycerophospholipid metabolism" and "Fatty acid biosynthesis" signaling pathways may be associated with abnormal testis development of X. laevis due to exposure to AZ. Analysis results showed a positive correlation between mA modification and mRNA abundance, suggesting a regulatory role of mA in amphibious gene expression. Our first report of mA transcriptome-wide map of an amphibian species X. laevis presented here provides a starting roadmap for uncovering mA functions that may affect/control amphibian testis development.
This article was published in the following journal.
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Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A class of antimicrobial peptides discovered in the skin of XENOPUS LAEVIS. They kill bacteria by permeabilizing cell membranes without exhibiting significant toxicity against mammalian cells.
A family of the order Anura, distinguished by the lack of a tongue. It includes four living genera of aquatic "toads". Two of the most familiar pipids are the popularly called Surinam "toad" (Pipa pipa) and XENOPUS LAEVIS.
A poly(A) binding protein that is involved in promoting the extension of the poly A tails of MRNA. The protein requires a minimum of ten ADENOSINE nucleotides in order for binding to mRNA. Once bound it works in conjunction with CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR to stimulate the rate of poly A synthesis by POLY A POLYMERASE. Once poly-A tails reach around 250 nucleotides in length poly(A) binding protein II no longer stimulates POLYADENYLATION. Mutations within a GCG repeat region in the gene for poly(A) binding protein II have been shown to cause the disease MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY, OCULOPHARYNGEAL.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. During DNA sequencing, the bases of a small fragment of DNA are sequentially identified from signals emitted as each fragment is re-synthesized from a ...
The process of gene expression is used by eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-tran...