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Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and a leading cause of cancer-related death. Recent advances in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer, including the use of more potent and selective inhibitors of the androgen signaling pathway, have provided significant clinical benefit for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, most patients develop progressive lethal disease, highlighting the need for more effective treatments. One such approach is immunotherapy, which harness the power of the patient's immune system to identify and destroy cancer cells through the activation of cytotoxic CD8 T cells specific for tumor antigens. Although immunotherapy, particularly checkpoint blockade, can induce significant clinical responses in patients with solid tumors or hematological malignancies, minimal efficacy has been observed in men with mCRPC. In the current review, we discuss our current understanding of the immunological complexity of the immunosuppressive prostate cancer microenvironment, preclinical models of prostate cancer, and recent advances in immunotherapy clinical trials to improve outcomes for men with mCRPC.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Advances in experimental medicine and biology
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A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)
A synthetic retinoid that is used orally as a chemopreventive against prostate cancer and in women at risk of developing contralateral breast cancer. It is also effective as an antineoplastic agent.
Tissue ablation of the PROSTATE performed by ultrasound from a transducer placed in the RECTUM. The procedure is used to treat prostate cancer (PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS) and benign prostatic hypertrophy (PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA).
Proteins secreted by the prostate gland. The major secretory proteins from the human prostate gland include PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, prostate-specific membrane antigen, and prostate-specific protein-94.
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