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Leaf rust, caused by Erikss., is globally the most widespread rust of wheat. Populations of are highly diverse for virulence, with many different races found annually. The genetic diversity of populations has been previously assessed using different types of DNA markers. Genotyping technologies that provide a higher density of markers distributed across the genome will be more powerful for analysis of genetic and phylogenetic relationships in populations. In this study, we utilized restriction-associated DNA (RAD) genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) adapted for the Ion Torrent sequencing platform for the study of population diversity in . A collection of 102 isolates, collected mainly from tetraploid and hexaploid wheat, was used. The virulence phenotypes of the isolates were determined on 20 lines of Thatcher wheat near isogenic for leaf rust resistance genes. Seven races were found among 57 isolates collected from tetraploid wheat, and 21 races were observed among 40 hexaploid wheat type isolates. This is the first study to report durum wheat virulent races to in Tunisia, in Morocco, and and in Mexico. Ethiopian isolates with high virulence to durum wheat but avirulent on Thatcher (hexaploid wheat) were tested for virulence on a set of durum (tetraploid) differentials. A subset of 30 isolates representing most of the virulence phenotypes in the 102 isolates were genotyped using RAD-GBS. Phylogenetic analysis of 30 isolates using 2,125 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers showed nine distinct clusters. There was a general correlation between virulence phenotypes and SNP genotypes. The high bootstrap values between clusters of isolates in the phylogenetic tree indicated that RAD-GBS can be used as a new genotyping tool that is fast, simple, high throughput, cost effective, and provides a sufficient number of markers for the study of genetic diversity in .[Formula: see text] Copyright © 2019 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0 International license.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Plant disease
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The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.
Methods used to determine individuals' specific ALLELES or SNPS (single nucleotide polymorphisms).
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. During DNA sequencing, the bases of a small fragment of DNA are sequentially identified from signals emitted as each fragment is re-synthesized from a ...
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...