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Production of reactive oxygen species due to dysregulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity is linked to vascular dysfunction. eNOS is a major target protein of the primary calcium-sensing protein calmodulin. Calmodulin is often modified by the main biomarker of nitroxidative stress, 3-nitrotyrosine (nitroTyr). Despite nitroTyr being an abundant post-translational modification on calmodulin, the mechanistic role of this modification in altering calmodulin function and eNOS activation has not been investigated. Here, using genetic code expansion to site-specifically nitrate calmodulin at its two tyrosine residues, we assessed the effects of these alterations on calcium binding by calmodulin and on binding and activation of eNOS. We found that nitroTyr-calmodulin retains affinity for eNOS under resting physiological calcium concentrations. Results from i eNOS assays with calmodulin nitrated at Tyr-99 revealed that this nitration reduces nitric oxide production and increases eNOS decoupling compared with wild-type calmodulin. In contrast, calmodulin nitrated at Tyr-138 produced more nitric oxide and did so more efficiently than wild-type calmodulin. These results indicate that the nitroTyr posttranslational modification, like tyrosine phosphorylation, can impact calmodulin sensitivity for calcium and reveal Tyr site-specific gain- or loss-of-functions for calmodulin-induced eNOS activation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Journal of biological chemistry
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A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A regulatory calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that specifically phosphorylates CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 1; CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 2; CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 4; and PROTEIN KINASE B. It is a monomeric enzyme that is encoded by at least two different genes.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that specifically phosphorylates PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2. The enzyme lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE, however it is regulated by phosphorylation by PROTEIN KINASE A and through intramolecular autophosphorylation.
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Vascular relates to blood vessels (Oxford Medical Dictionary) and can be used to describe the supply of blood, a disease affecting the blood vessels or molecules associated with these structures. For example, <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->atherosclerosis ...