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Advances in cardiovascular (CV) imaging, redefined electrocardiogram criteria, and high-sensitivity CV biomarker assays have enabled more differentiated etiological classification of myocardial infarction (MI). Type 1 MI has a different underlying pathophysiology than type 2 through type 5 MI; type 1 MI is characterized primarily by intracoronary atherothrombosis and the other types by a variety of mechanisms, which can occur with or without an atherosclerotic component. In type 2 MI, there is evidence of myocardial oxygen supply-demand imbalance unrelated to acute coronary atherothrombosis. Types 1 and 2 MI are spontaneous events, while type 4 and type 5 are procedure-related; type 3 MI is identified only after death. Most type 1 and type 2 MI present as non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI), although both types can also present as ST-elevation MI. Because of their different underlying etiologies, type 1 and type 2 NSTEMI have different presentation and prognosis and should be managed differently. In this article, we discuss the epidemiology, prognosis, and management of NSTEMI occurring in the setting of underlying type 1 or type 2 pathophysiology. Most NSTEMI (65%-90%) are type 1 MI. Patients with type 2 MI have multiple comorbidities and causes of in-hospital mortality among these patients are not always CV-related. It is important to distinguish between type 1 and type 2 NSTEMI early in the clinical course to allow for the use of the most appropriate treatments that will provide the greatest benefit for these patients.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Clinical cardiology
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A clinical syndrome defined by MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA symptoms; persistent elevation in the ST segments of the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM; and release of BIOMARKERS of myocardial NECROSIS (e.g., elevated TROPONIN levels). ST segment elevation in the ECG is often used in determining the treatment protocol (see also NON-ST ELEVATION MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
A myocardial infarction that does not produce elevations in the ST segments of the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM. ST segment elevation of the ECG is often used in determining the treatment protocol (see also ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction).
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION in which the anterior wall of the heart is involved. Anterior wall myocardial infarction is often caused by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. It can be categorized as anteroseptal or anterolateral wall myocardial infarction.
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION in which the inferior wall of the heart is involved. It is often caused by occlusion of the right coronary artery.
A phenylethylamine derivative that acts as a calcium antagonist showing hemodynamic effects in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
Immunoassay - ELISA
Immunoassays are quick and accurate tests to detect specific molecules. Immunoassays rely on an antibody to bind to the specific structure of a molecule. Antibodies are proteins generated by animals in response to the invasion of a foreign molecule (anti...