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Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) use has exponentially increased in various applications (such as industrial catalyst, gas sensors, electronic materials, biomedicines, environmental remediation) due to their flexible properties, i.e. large surface area to volume ratio. These broad applications, however, have increased human exposure and thus the potential risk related to their short- and long-term toxicity. Their release in environment has drawn considerable attention which has become an eminent area of research and development. To understand the toxicological impact of CuO NPs, this review summarises the in-vitro and in-vivo toxicity of CuO NPs subjected to species (bacterial, algae, fish, rats, human cell lines) used for toxicological hazard assessment. The key factors that influence the toxicity of CuO NPs such as particle shape, size, surface functionalisation, time-dose interaction and animal and cell models are elaborated. The literature evidences that the CuO NPs exposure to the living systems results in reactive oxygen species generation, oxidative stress, inflammation, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and immunotoxicity. However, the physio-chemical characteristics of CuO NPs, concentration, mode of exposure, animal model and assessment characteristics are the main perspectives that define toxicology of CuO NPs.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: IET nanobiotechnology
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