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Inspired by the attractive features of extreme learning machine (ELM), a simple ensemble ELM algorithm, named EELM, is proposed for multivariate calibration of near-infrared spectroscopy. Such an algorithm takes full advantage of random initialization of the weights of the hidden layer in ELM for obtaining the diversity between member models. Also, by combining a large number of member models, the stability of the final prediction can be greatly improved and the ensemble model outperforms its best member model. Compared with partial least-squares (PLS), the superiority of EELM is attributed to its inherent characteristics of high learning speed, simple structure and excellent predictive performance. Three NIR spectral datasets concerning solid samples are used to verify the proposed algorithm in terms of both the accuracy and robustness. The results confirmed the superiority of EELM to classic PLS. Also, even if the experiment is done on NIR datasets, it provides a good reference for other spectral calibration.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Spectrochimica acta. Part A, Molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy
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A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Process in which individuals take the initiative, in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating learning goals, identifying resources for learning, choosing and implementing learning strategies and evaluating learning outcomes (Knowles, 1975)
That branch of learning which brings together theories and studies on communication and control in living organisms and machines.
Measurement of the regional temperature of the body or an organ by infrared sensing devices, based on self-emanating infrared radiation.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.