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Stem cells and the niche in which they reside feature a complex microenvironment with tightly regulated homeostasis, cell-cell interactions and dynamic regulation of metabolism. A significant number of organoid models has been described over the last decade, yet few methodologies can enable single cell level resolution analysis of the stem cell niche metabolic demands, in real-time and without perturbing integrity. Here, we studied the redox metabolism of Lgr5-GFP intestinal organoids by two emerging microscopy approaches based on luminescence lifetime measurement - fluorescence-based FLIM for NAD(P)H, and phosphorescence-based PLIM for real-time oxygenation. We found that exposure of stem (Lgr5-GFP) and differentiated (no GFP) cells to high and low glucose concentrations resulted in measurable shifts in oxygenation and redox status. NAD(P)H-FLIM and O-PLIM both indicated that at high 'basal' glucose conditions, Lgr5-GFP cells had lower activity of oxidative phosphorylation when compared with cells lacking Lgr5. However, when exposed to low (0.5 mM) glucose, stem cells utilized oxidative metabolism more dynamically than non-stem cells. The high heterogeneity of complex 3D architecture and energy production pathways of Lgr5-GFP organoids were also confirmed by the extracellular flux (XF) analysis. Our data reveals that combined analysis of NAD(P)H-FLIM and organoid oxygenation by PLIM represents promising approach for studying stem cell niche metabolism in a live readout.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Redox biology
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Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.
An analytical method for detecting and measuring FLUORESCENCE in compounds or targets such as cells, proteins, or nucleotides, or targets previously labeled with FLUORESCENCE AGENTS.
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
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